Six new taxa of Brazilian Araceae are here described and illustrated (Philodendron nullinervium E.G.Gonc.; Philodendron tenuispadix E.G.Gonc.; Taccarum crassispathum E.G.Gonc.; Xanthosoma acutum E.G.Gonc., Xanthosoma rotundatum E.G.Gonc. and Xanthosoma pulchrum E.G.Gonc.). Along with them, a new name (Philodendron humile E.G.Gonc.) is proposed for Homalomena solimoense G.M.Barroso, since this has proved to be a species of Philodendron, and simply transferring the epithet as a new combination in Philodendron is likely to lead to confusion with the pre-existing name Philodendron solimoesense A.C. Smith.