The genus Dracontioides was formerly considered monotypic with the only known species (D. desciscens (Schott) Eng!.) restricted to extreme eastern Brazil, growing as a helophytic herb. A second species for the genus (D. salvianii E.G. Gon~.) is here described, also from eastern Brazil (Bahia state). It is a psammophytic herb and a neotenic origin for this species is suggested. Since the last complete description of D. desciscens is the one included in the description of the genus, both species were described, illustrated and compared. Relationship of Dracontioides with genera considered closely related as Dracontium and Anapbyllopsis is discussed, as well as biogeographic and evolutionary trends within the genus Dracontioides and closely related genera.