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Anthurium panamense Croat, sp. nov.

TYPE: Panama. Veraguas: along the road between Santa Fe and Calovebora, beyond the Escuela Agricola Alto Piedra, on banks of the first major stream ca. 3 mi. from the school, ca. 700 m, 8°34'N, 81°09'W, Croat 49001 (MO 2726772-74, holotype; PMA, isotype).

Plerumque epiphytica, interdum terrestris; cataphyllum modice coriaceum, basi findens, ultimo deciduum; petiolus anguste et argue sulcatus; lamina coriacea, oblongo-ovata, interdum anguste ovata, basi profunde cordata, 52-85 cm longa, 17-52 cm lata; nervis primariis lateralis 10-24; inflorescentia erecta; pedunculus teres, 23-42 cm longus; spatha viridis ad flavovirens interdum suffusa purpurea, 11-12(-22) cm longa, 1.1-2.9(-3.8) cm lata; oblongo-lanceolata; spadix cremeus purpurescens, 15-25 cm longus, baccae rubrae, oblongo-ellipsoideae, 9-10 mm longae, 3.5-4.5 mm diam.

Usually epiphytic, sometimes terrestrial on steep banks or on rocks; stems to ca. 60 cm long, 2-3.5 cm diam., leaf scars to 4 cm diam.; inter-nodes short or to 2 cm long; cataphylls 14÷25 cm long, moderately coriaceous, sometimes weakly striate, acute and apiculate at apex, green, sometimes tinged with purple, drying brownish, caducous or weathering toward the base, then deciduous.

LEAVES with petioles brittle, semi-erect, 60-90 cm long, 8-12 mm diam. midway, narrowly and sharply sulcate adaxially, weakly striate longitudinally around the circumference, green sometimes tinged with purple; geniculum 3-4 cm long, shaped like petiole, smooth or weakly ribbed; blades coriaceous, epunctate, usually oblong-ovate, sometimes narrowly ovate, acuminate at apex, deeply cordate at base, 52-85 cm long, 17-52 cm wide, broadest well below the middle, the margin more or less straight; anterior lobe 40-80 cm long, broadly convex along the margin; posterior lobes directed basally, 10-24 cm long (from point of petiole attachment to outermost point); sinus usually obovate, generally closed, sometimes hippocrepiform, obtuse to rounded at apex; upper surface matte to semiglossy, weakly velvety and somewhat bullate, drying matte; lower surface matte, slightly paler; midrib prominently raised above, sharply acute, becoming narrower than high in the apical part of the blade, prominently raised beneath, often weakly ribbed; basal veins 5-8 pairs, the first free, the second usually free (approaching petiole at a broad angle approximately 90°), the third rarely free, usually coalesced 1-2 cm with the fourth and higher order veins, the remaining basal veins coalesced to varying degrees, mostly 3-6 cm; posterior rib naked, slightly curved; primary lateral veins 11-20 per side, prominently sunken above, prominently raised beneath; interprimary veins present, usually much less conspicuous than the primary lateral veins; secondary veins in part sunken above; tertiary veins drying prominulous on the lower surface; collective vein arising usually from the second or third basal vein, often prominently loop-connected from the lowermost basal veins, mostly 3-6 mm from the margin, rarely to 10 mm.

INFLORESCENCE much shorter than the leaves, usually stiffly erect at anthesis; peduncle 23-42 cm long, one-third to one-half as long as the petioles, terete, smooth, sometimes tinged with purple; spathe green to yellowish green, sometimes tinged with purple (at least on veins), brittle, strongly reflexed and sometimes twisted, oblong-lanceolate, 11-20 cmm long, 1.1-3.8 cm wide, broadest just above the base, acuminate at apex, acute at the base, inserted at ca. 45° angle on peduncle; spadix creamy white becoming purplish violet in age, elongate. gradually tapered, 15-25 cm long, 1-1.6 cm diam. near the base, 7-9 mm diam. near the apex. the apex rounded; flowers rhombic, 1.6-2.5 cm long (dried), 1-2.1 mm wide, 19-24 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 14÷15 flowers visible in the alternate spiral, the sides sigmoid; tepals epunc-tate, the lateral tepals 0.3-0.7 mm wide, the inner margin broadly rounded to straight, drying thin. the alternate margin drying prominently upturned, appearing concave; pistils weakly emergent at or slightly after anthesis; stamens weakly exsertcd above the tepals, filaments weakly exposed, much broader than the anthers, held in a relatively tight cluster around and obscuring the pistil; anthers creamy white, 0.4 mm long, 0.3-0.4 mm wide; thecae not divaricate; pollen whitish.

INFRUCTESCENCE 30-40 cm long, 2.5-3.5 cm diam. with berries exposed, berries red, oblong-ellipsoid, 9-10 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm diam., blunt at both ends, densely arrayed with slender, linear, raphide cells in the apical half; seeds 1-2, oblong-elliptic, 3-3.5 mm long, 1.7-2 mm wide, 1.1-1.2 mm thick, appendaged at one or both ends, sometimes enveloping the entire seed. Figs. 129 and 130.

Anthurium panamense is endemic to Central Panama in Veraguas and Code Provinces at 350 to 800 m in tropical wet and premontane rain forest life zones.

The sectional placement of the species is uncertain; it is, however, provisionally placed in section Belolonchium. It is recognized by conspicuously striate petioles and much elongated, oblong-ovate blades with the anterior lobes usually three or more times longer than the posterior lobes and with numerous primary lateral veins. Other distinguishing features include the short pedunculate inflorescence with a long, tapered whitish spadix, the reflexed, greenish, oblong-lanceolate spathe, and the long infructescence with red berries.

The species is most easily confused with Anthurium hebetatum, which has leaves drying similarly matte and are also much elongated. That species diners, however, in having the blades broadest well above the base whereas the blades of A. panamense are broadest at the base. Anthurium panamense may also be confused with A. dukei, which is found in Darien Province in the Serrania de Pirre. That species differs by having a shorter blade, a maroon spadix, and a longer inflorescence.



Map of Mesoamerican specimens with coordinates

Costa Rica Puntarenas: 1200 m, 8.49N 82.58W, 6-7 March 1984, Thomas B. Croat 57241 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 590 m, 8.46N 82.14W, 10 March 1985, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 60155 (CM, MO, NY, SCZ).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 700 m, 8.45N 82.15W, 10 March 1985, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 60262 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 850 m, 08.48N 82.13W, 29 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74927 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 600 m, 8.45N 82.18W, 25 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66784 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 550 m, 08.45N 82.15W, 12 Feb. 1986, Gordon McPherson 8414 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 900 m, 8.45N 82.15W, 12 March 1985, Gordon McPherson 6819 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 120 m, 8.53N 82.10W, 1-2 May 1985, B. Hammel 13729 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 300-400 ft.,, 24 June 1986, Kress et al. 86-2004 (SEL).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 1600 ft.,, 23 June 1986, Kress et al. 86-1979 (SEL).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.45N 80.35W, 4 Feb. 1983, C. Hamilton & G. Davidse 2771 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 710-800 m, 89.39N 80.36W, 22 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68704 (CM,MO,SCZ).
Panama Darien: 800-1050 m, 7.56N 77.45W, 29 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68956 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 600 m, 8.33N 81.08W, 28 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66931 (MO). South American

South American Specimens with coordinates

Colombia Caldas: Cordillera Central, 2250 m,, 14 Apr. 1984, Fraume & Gallego 155 (MO).
Colombia Caldas: Cordillera Central, 2250 m,, 17 Mar. 1984, Fraume & Gallego 47 (MO).
Colombia Choco: 465 m, 5.44N 76.28W, 16 March 1984, Thomas B. Croat 57501 (CHOCO, COL).
Colombia Valle del Cauca: 50 m, 3.56N 76.59W, 21 March 1984, Thomas B. Croat 57555 (MO).
Colombia Valle del Cauca: Bajo Calima, <100 m, 4.09N 77.12W, 27 Feb. 1990, Thomas B. Croat 70992B (MO).
Colombia Valle del Cauca:, 28 July 1997, Thomas B. Croat & John F. Gaskin 80451 .
Colombia Valle del Cauca: 40 m, 04.00.44N 077.20.04W, 29 July 1997, Thomas B. Croat & John F. Gaskin 80568 .