Anthurium ravenii Croat & Baker,
Brenesia 16 (Supl. I): 75. 1979. TYPE: Panama. Panama: north of Tocumen airport on road to Cerro Jefe, 2.5 miles north of Lago Cerro Azul, elev., ca. 700 m, Croat 77529(MO-2205477, holotype; F, K, PMA, US, isotypes; Live at MO).
Epiphyte; stem 1.5-2.5 cm diam., often to 40 cm long; the leaf scars almost contiguous, ca. 2 cm wide; roots relatively few, green to greenish-brown, 2-3 mm diam.; cataphylls subcoriaceous, to 17.5 cm long, drying brown, remaining intact, soon deciduous.
LEAVES with petioles broadly and stiffly spreading, 19-70 cm long, 6-10 mm diam., subterete, obscurely and narrowly sulcate (the sulcus less than 1 mm wide); geniculum 2-2.5 cm long; blades moderately thick, ovate-triangular, narrowly to abruptly acuminate at apex,prominently lobed at base, 30-75 cm long, 16-40 cm wide, broadest at or near point of petiole attachment; the anterior lobe 25-44 cm long, the margin broadly rounded to weakly concave; the posterior lobes 10-19 cm long; the sinus spathu-late, elliptic or obovate, acute, truncate or rounded at apex, usually broader than deep; the basal veins 5-9 pairs, the first and second free, the remainder coalesced 1-8 cm; the posterior rib curved, marginal lo the sinus, 2.5-4.5 cm, the outer margin turned upward; blades semiglossy above, often broadly undulate, the lower surface semiglossy to matte; the midrib raised above and below; primary lateral veins 5-11 per side, departing midrib at 40°-50° angle, raised in valleys above, raised below; lesser veins conspicuous, flat above, weakly raised below; the collective vein arising from the first basal vein or one of the lowermost primary lateral veins, sunken above, raised below, 2-4 mm from margin.
INFLORESCENCE erect-spreading; peduncles 15-40 cm long, 7-8 mm diam., terete, sometimes weakly ribbed on adaxial side, running the full length of the peduncle (continuous lo the dccur-rent spathe); spathe greenish-white to pale green, sometimes tinged purplish at base, oblong-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, moderately thin, 8-18 cm long, 2.5-5.8 cm wide, broadest just above point of petiole attachment, abruptly acuminate at apex, the margins sometimes turned downward in lower half, rounded at base then decurrent to 1 5 mm; spadix cream, while, lo pale green, usually sessile (rarely with a stipe 2-10 mm long), 8.5-24 cm long, 12-15 mm diam. at base, 10-12 mm diam. at apex; flowers weakly and irregularly 4-lobed, 2.2-3.5 mm long, 2.3-3.2 mm wide, sometimes conspicuously wider than long, the sides sometimes straight, usually jaggedly sigmoid; 8-12 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 8-15 flowers visible in the alternate spiral; tepals smooth, matte or weakly glistening with numerous minute droplets, the inner margins straight to convex, the lateral tepals 1.1-1.5 mm wide, 3-sided or more commonly 4-sided, with one lateral te-pal acute on one end and obtuse on the other (proximal and distal ends), the opposite lateral tepal being a mirror image; pistil emergent but not raised, cream or whitish and difficult to discern from the adjacent tepals; stigma round, brushlike, somewhat elevated with short dense papillae, sometimes forming minute droplets about 7 days before first anthers emerge; the first stamens exposed in 2 or 3 days throughout spadix, all stamens emerged in about 10 days after first appears, usually exserted above the tepals, 1.2-1.5 mm, held in a very tight cluster; filaments flattened, fleshy, 0.6-0.8 mm wide, slightly longer than the anther, sometimes retracting but usually remaining exserted, drying and twisting; anthers white, 0.5-0.6 mm long, 0.6-1 mm wide; thecae not divaricate; pollen pale lemon-yellow, fading dirty white.
INFRUCTESCENCE arching-pendent; the spathe usually deciduous; spadix 14-44 cm long, ca. 2.5 cm diam. (with berries emerged); berries usually evenly emerged (even before maturity), narrowly ovoid, acute at apex, bright red, usually white in lower half; me-socarp gelatinous, transparent; seeds 2, white to brown with white punctations, green at apex, flattened, broadly elliptic, 3.7-4 mm long, 2.5-2.7 mm wide, ca. 2 mm thick. Figs. 157 and 158.
Anthurium ravenii ranges from Honduras to the Pacific slope of Ecuador. It usually occurs in tropical wet and premontane wet forest from near sea level to 1,000 m elevation, but it has also been found in tropical moist forest in Darien Province in Panama.
The species is a member of section Calomystrium and is unusual in having an orbicular, brushy, elevated stigma rather than a slitlike depressed stigma (in dried material a darkened slit-like area becomes visible). Distinguishing features include major veins that dry reddish-brown, the weak and brittle spathe, the scarcely tapered, whitish spadix, the usually long-exserted stamens, and bright red berries. The species is not close to any other species although for many years material of this species was called A. concinnatum, a completely unrelated species of higher I elevations.
Map of Mesoamerican specimens with coordinates
Costa Rica Alajuela: 80-100 m, 10.43N 84.48W, 4 Aug 1949, Holm
& Iltis 842 (G).
Costa Rica Alajuela: 10.28N 84.30W, 9 April 1983, Ronald Liesner 14098 (CR,K,MO).
Costa Rica Alajuela: 700 m, 10.34.05N 84.54.00W, 30 April 1983, Ronald Liesner, E. Judziewicz & B. Pérez G. 15100 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 10-40 m, 10.40N 83.40W, 13-14 Sep 1986, Warren Douglas Stevens 24290 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 20-170 m, 10.41N 83.38W, 15-20 Sep 1986, Warren Douglas Stevens 24408 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 5 m, 09.38N 82.39W, 2 Nov 1984, Michael Grayum & Willie Burton 4306 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 12 m, 10.38N 83.45W, 22 April 1990, Michael Grayum 9825 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 300 m, 9.25.10N 83.03.00W, 25 February 1992, Reinaldo Aguilar H. Schmidt 998 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 70 m, 10.27N 83.34W, 3 February 1988, Rafael Robles 1600 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: 40 m, 10.28N 83.34W, 15 March 1988, Rafael Robles 1744 (MO).
Costa Rica Lim—n: R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado; Llanura de Tortuguero, 50 m, 10.38.38N 83.44.10W, 15 January 1994, Flor Araya & J. Corrales 468 (CR). Costa Rica Puntarenas: 200 m, 08.42N 83.34W, 8 Oct 1984, M. Grayum 4078 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 150-260 m, 8.41N 83.32W, 3 March 1985, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 59784 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 100 m, 8.41N 83.12W, 6 March 1985, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 59927 (CR, MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 30 m, 8.11N 83.12W, 15 Sept. 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67628 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 0 m, 8.27N 83.33W, 26 July 1988, C. Kernan & P. Phillips 723 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: Parque Nacional Corcovado, 150-650 m, 08.27N 83.33W - 08.30N 83.38W, 22 May 1988, C. Kernan & P. Phillips 489 (CR, MO). Costa Rica Puntarenas: 1-50 m, 8.28N 83.35W, 27 May 1989, C. Kernan & P. Phillips 1143 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 1-50 m, 8.28N 83.35W, 26 June 1989, C. Kernan 1194 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 1-20 m, 8.28N 83.35W, 20 June 1990, Gustavo Maass 77 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 200 m, 8.44N 83.32W, 15 July 1991, Juan Marín 11 (MO, CR).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 300 m, 8.33N 83.35W, 30 May 1988, Barry Hammel G. Herrera, M.M. Chavarría & A. Solís 16889 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: Corcovado National Park, 08.29N 83.35W, , Alverson 2110 (WIS).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 200 m, 8.38N 83.25W, 1 October 1990, Fco. Quesada 211 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: R.B. Carara; Valle del Tárcoles, 50 m, 09.46N 84.36W, 27 July 1990, Erick Bello 2379 (CR, MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: 4000 ft,, 28 Feb 1976, Thomas B. Croat 32897 (MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: <50 m, 08.41.20N 83.29.50W, 11 September 1996, Thomas B. Croat & Dylan Hannon 79254 (INB, MO).
Costa Rica Puntarenas: P.N. Corcovado, 200 m, 08.34N 83.31W, 2 June 1994, Aguilar, R. 3312 (INB).
Costa Rica San José: 460-520 m, 09.45.00N 84.33.30W, 26 June 1985, Michael H. Grayum, Richard Warner & Pam Sleeper 5470 (MO).
Costa Rica San José: 350 m, 9.42.06N 84.23.35W, 29 July 1992, J.F. Morales 302 (MO).
Costa Rica San José: Z.P. La Cangreja; Faja Costeña del Valle de Parrita, 200 m, 09.40.48N 84.22.25W, 28 May 1994, J.F. Morales 2816 (CR).
Costa Rica San José: 1000 m,, 22 May 1976, CROAT 35264 (MO).
Nicaragua Río San Juan: 70-100 m, 11.03N 84.27W, 14 marzo 1987, Pedro P. Moreno 26747 (MO).
Nicaragua Río San Juan: Municipio San Juan del Norte, 10.46N 83.46W, 8 Julio 1995, Ricardo Rueda, Blas Hernández y Edith Palma 2695 .
Nicaragua Zelaya: Col—nia Yolaina, 300 m, 11.38N 84.21W, 13 Aug. 1982, Araquistain, M. 3108 (MO).
Nicaragua Zelaya: 10 m, 11.33N 84.02W, 11 noviembre 1981, P.P.Moreno & J.C.Sandino 12849 (MO).
Nicaragua Zelaya: 10 m, 11.57N 84.16W, 16 May 1978, W.D. Stevens 8847 .
Nicaragua Zelaya: 150-200 m, 11.49N 84.26W, 20 May 1978, W.D. Stevens 9017 .
Nicaragua Zelaya: 200-300 m, 11.36-37N 84.22W, 29-31 October 1977, W.D. Stevens 4836 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 1200 m, 8.44N 82.17W, 11 March 198, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 60345 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 1100-1750 m, 8.35N 81.54W, 27-31 Mar 1986, Barry Hammel & J. Trainer 14976 (MO).
Panama Bocas del Toro: 1000 m, 8.48N 82.12W, 5 Feb. 1984, H.W. Churchill, G. de Nevers & H. Stockwell 4642 (MO).
Panama Canal Area:, 12 Jul 1966, Tyson et al. 4494 (FSU).
Panama Canal Area: Río Pequeni, 260 f,, 24 August 1940, Orig. coll. by Bartlett & Lasser Fairchild 104 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1100-1135 m, 8.43N 82.17W, 8 March 1985, T.B. Croat & M.H. Grayum 60004 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1100-1200 m, 8.45N 82.18W, 21 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66585 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1165-1200 m, 8.44N 82.14W, 19 Sept. 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67838 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1130 m, 8.44.00N 82.14.35W, 20 Sept. 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67868 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 8.46N 82.16W, 23 Sept. 1987, Thomas B. Croat 68025 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1100 m, 8.45N 82.15W, 10 Feb. 1986, Gordon McPherson 8383 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1150 m, 8.45N 82.15W, 23 Oct. 1985, Gordon McPherson 7285 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1100 m, 8.45N 82.13W, 8 Feb. 1984, H.W. Churchill, G. de Nevers & H. Stockwell 4813 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 1200 m, 8.42N 82.14W, 16 June 1984, H.W. Churchill 5468 (MO).
Panama Chiriquí: 08.45N 82.18W, 24 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76365A (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m,, 3 Feb. 1983, C. Hamilton & G. Davidse 2670 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 775 m, 08.36N 80.07W, 25 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74778 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 89.39N 80.36W, 23 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68827 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: Atlantic slope, 750-900 m,, 20 Jan. 1978, Thomas B. Croat 44725 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 850-900 m, 08.37N 80.07W, 12 July 1987, Gordon McPherson 11221 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.42.43N 80.37.15W, 3 Feb 1983, G. Davidse & C.W. Hamilton 23523 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200 m, 8.47N 80.28W, 17 Dec. 1983, H.W. Churchill, A. Lier, W.S. Armbruster & A. Herzig 4168 (MO).
Panama Col—n: 25 m, 09.30.04N 79.40.04W, 4 March 1987, Gordon McPherson 10600 (MO).
Panama Col—n: < 100 m., 09.27N 79.40W, 19 June 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76234 (MO).
Panama Col—n: 30-100 m, 09.30N 79.30W, 22 September 1996, Thomas B. Croat 79360 .
Panama Darien: 110 m, 08.01N 77.44W, 26 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 77088 (MO, US).
Panama Darien: Parque Nacional Darien, 500-700 m, 7.58N 78.23W, 25 May 1991, Hensold 1131 (MO).
Panama Darien: 0-80 m, 8.0N 77.48W, 1 July 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68966 (MO).
Panama Darien: 550-830 m, 7.58N 78.23W, 25 May 1991, Gordon McPherson 15383 (MO).
Panama Darien: 70-270 m, 8.01N 77.44W, 08 October 1987, B. Hammel H. Herrera & G. de Nevers 16105 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 800-900 m, 8.40N 79.55W, 25 Aug. 1994, Correa & Montenegro 10758 (STRI).
Panama Panamá: 800-1000 m, 8.40N 79.55W, 23 July 1983, C. Hamilton, K. Krager, J. Miller & L. Miller 4086 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 800 m, 08.41N 79.56W, 23 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74764 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 450 m, 09.18N 79.59W, 3 April 1993, Thomas B. Croat 75117 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 370 m, 9.16N 78.57W, 11 February 1986, Scott Hoover 1312 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 450 m, 09.18N 79.59W, 3 April 1993, Thomas B. Croat 75139 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 700-750 m, 9.15N 79.25W, 19 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68667 (MO).
Panama Panamá: 770 m, 09.15N 79.29W, 4 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76621 (MO, WIS).
Panama Panamá: 770 m, 09.15N 79.29W, 4 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76636 .
Panama San Blas: 300 m, 09.20N 79.00W, 20 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 77024 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 300-350 m, 09.15N 79.00W, 28 March 1987, Gordon McPherson 10781 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 350 m, 9.19N 78.55W, 11 March 1986, Greg de Nevers, Heraclio Herrera & Stephanie Kaza 7361 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 400-500 m, 9.20N 79.08W, 5 Feb. 1986, Greg de Nevers & H. Herrera 7003 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 350 m, 9.19N 78.55W, 5 March 1985, Greg de Nevers, H. Herrera & S. Charnley 4989 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 50-60 m, 09.15.5N 78.15W, 11 Julio 1994, Heraclio Herrera 1665 (MO,PMA,STRI).
Panama Veraguas: 800-1100 m, 8.35N 81.05W, 15 July 1983, C. Hamilton & K. Krager 3937 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 800-950 m, 8.33N 81.08W, 29 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67001 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 870 m, 8.33N 81.05W, 17 February 1986, Scott Hoover 1322 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 10 m, 08.50N 81.00W, 6 August 1987, Gordon McPherson 11388 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: Santa Fe area, 3600-4000 ft.,, 29 June 1980, António 4968 (U).
Panama Veraguas: 800-1030 m,, 15 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76927 (MO).