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Anthurium sanctifidense Croat,

Selbyana 5: 334. 1981. TYPE: Panama. Veraguas: 0.2 mi. beyond fork in road at Escuela Agricola Alto Piedra, above Santa Fe, ca. 750 m, Croat & Folsom 33957 (MO 2381537, holotype; C, CAS, CR, F, K, NY, PMA, SEL, US, VEN, isotypes; Live at MO).

Terrestrial, rarely epiphytic; stem 1.5-2 cm diam., to 30 cm long or more; leaf scars often hidden by persisting cataphylls; roots stout, green to grayish; cataphylls moderately thick, 10-20 cm long, cuspidate-acuminate at apex, drying reddish brown, persisting intact.

LEAVES usually erect; petioles 33-50 cm long, 4-11 mm diam., subterete, shallowly and bluntly sulcate; geniculum 2.5-3 cm long, shaped like petiole, sometimes greatly thickened where it meets the blade: blades broadly ovate, lobed at base, abruptly acuminate at apex (the acumen slightly twisted, downtumed), 21-57 cm long, 16÷46 cm wide, broadest at point of petiole attachment, anterior lobe 16-3 5 cm long, the margins broadly rounded; basal lobes 5-14 cm long, directed ba-sally or somewhat outward, the sinus parabolic to broadly triangular, obtuse to rounded at apex; upper surface matte to semiglossy, drying dark brown with sparse, pale, linear raphide cells, lower surface moderately paler with many pale, weakly raised, round glands (not dark punctations); midrib obtusely raised above and below, diminished and sunken at apex above, basal veins 5 or 6 pairs, 2 or 3 of them coalesced 1.5-3 cm, raised at base, sunken near margin above, raised below, the posterior rib straight to slightly curved, naked, the outer margin rolled upward; primary lateral veins 5-7 per side, departing midrib at ca. 45° angle, more or less straight to collective vein, raised or sunken above, raised below; lesser veins less conspicuous; submarginal collective vein arising from the uppermost basal vein or one of the primary lateral veins, 5-7 mm from the margin, weakly sunken above, weakly raised below.

INFLORESCENCE stiffly erect; peduncle 7-36 cm long, 5-8 mm diam., subterete, one-sixth to one-third as long as petioles; spathe pale green to greenish white, medium thick, ovate to lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, 5.5-15 cm long, 2.8-3.4cm wide, broadest just above peduncle, cuspidate-acuminate at apex (the acumen 1.5-3 cm long), obtuse to weakly subcordate at base, reflexed spreading decurrend ca. 6 mm, the margins turned down near the base; stipe 2-7 mm long in back, green; spadix greenish white (B & KYellow-green 9/7.5), 6.7-15 cm long, 9-11 mm diam. near base, 5-9 mm diam. near apex; flowers subrhombic to 4-lobed, 3-3.3 mm long, 3.3-3.6 mm wide, the sides jaggedly sigmoid to almost straight, the sides parallel to the spiral, straighter than those perpendicular to the spiral, 7-17 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 5-11 flowers visible in the alternate spiral; tepals glossy, smooth, the lateral tepals 1.4-1.8 mm wide, the inner margin very broadly rounded to almost straight, turned up against pistil; pistils flat to moderately exserted, pale green to white, becoming purplish, exserted 0.3-0.7 mm at anthesis; stigma tufted, raised, colorless, extending ca. 0.3 mm above the pistil; stamens emerging, scattered from the middle and soon progressing toward both ends, held over the pistil; anthers creamy white, 0.5-0.6 mm long, 0.8-0.9 mm wide, obscuring pistil when completed; thecae narrowly ovoid, slightly divaricate; pollen white.

INFRUCTESCENCE with spathe persistent, the spadix purplish; berries obovoid, ca. 8 mm long, 5.5 mm wide, rounded at apex, violet purple, sometimes whitish toward the base; pericarp thin sometimes with moderately conspicuous linear raphide cells; seeds 2, pale green (?), encased in a mucilaginous, transparent sack, to ca. 6.5 mm long, moderately flattened, oblong-ellipsoid, emarginate at apex, 5-6 mm long, 2.7-4 mm wide. Figs. 155 and 160.

Anthurium sanctifidense is known only from Panama, although it is expected to occur in the Choco of Colombia. It is known from areas of tropical wet and premontane rain forest on both sides of the isthmus and on both sides of the Continental Divide. The species is a member of section Calomystrium and is distinguished from other Panamanian species in this section by its frequently terrestrial habit, its pale, matte lower leaf surface, and by its purplish berries. It is most easily confused with Anthurium hoffmannii, but that species is probably more frequently epiphytic, has leaf blades semiglossy on the lower surface, and has red berries.

The species name refers to Santa Fe in Code Province where it was first collected.



Map of Mesoamerican specimens with coordinates

Panama Bocas del Toro: 850-950 m, 8.46N 82.17W, 08 Mar 1986, Barry Hammel, G. McPherson & L. Sanders 14704 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 600-800 m, 08.38N 08.35W, 8 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 77211 (MEXU, MO, TEX).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.45N 80.35W, 4 Feb. 1983, C. Hamilton & G. Davidse 2772 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.45N 80.35W, 4 Feb. 1983, C. Hamilton & G. Davidse 2715 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 680-770 m, 08.39N 80.36W, 25 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74832 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 680-770 m, 08.39N 80.36W, 25 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74842 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 710-800 m, 89.39N 80.36W, 22 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68730 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: Continental Divide, 750-800 m, 8.38.00N 80.35.00W, 8 Apr 1988, Thompson 4749 (CM).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.42.43N 80.37.15W, 3 Feb 1983, G. Davidse & C.W. Hamilton 23576 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200 m, 8.47N 80.28W, 16 Dec. 1983, H.W. Churchill, A. Lier, W.S. Armbruster & A. Herzig 4129A (MO).
Panama Col—n: 500-550 m, 9.20.00N 79.45.00W, 17-18 Apr 1988, Thompson 4840 (CM). P
anama Panama: 325-350 m,, 17 July 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67399 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 350 m, 09.20N 79.00W, 20 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 77002 (MO, NY).
Panama San Blas: 350 m, 9.19N 78.55W, 15 Nov. 1984, Greg de Nevers & H. Herrera 4265 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 200 m, 9.19N 78.55W, 17 Jun 1986, G. de Nevers, H. Herrera, G. McPherson, B. D'Arcy & B. Allen 7838 (MO).
Panama San Blas:, 18 June 1986, Greg de Nevers & H. Herrera 7949 (MO).
Panama San Blas: 350 m, 9.19N 78.55W, 8 March 1986, Greg de Nevers & Heraclio Herrera 7293 (MO).
Panama San Blas: Isla Tubuala, 200-300 m, 8.54N 77.46W, 10 Mar. 1993, Herrera, H. 1281 (MO, PMA).
Panama San Blas: 300 m, 09.20N 79.00W, 1 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76536 (DUKE, MO, OOM, TEX).
Panama San Blas: 80-200 m, 09.13.5N 78.15W, 29 Agosto 1994, Heraclio Herrera y L. Arosemena 1786 (MO,PMA,STRI).
Panama Veraguas: 700 m, 8.33N 81.08W, 28 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66927 (MO, NY).
Panama Veraguas: 600-750 m, 08.30N 81.07W, 21 March 1987, Gordon McPherson 10714 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 600-800 m, 8.30N 81.7W, 17 Oct. 1985, Gordon McPherson 7164 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 570 m, 08.33N 81.08W, 13 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76854 (MO).