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Anthurium vallense Croat,

Selbyana 5:338.1981. TYPE: Panama. Code: La Mesa, above El Valle de Antón, ca. 2 km W of Cerro Pilon on slopes of steep hill,860-900m, disturbed virgin forest, Croat 37327 (MO 2395387, holotype; B, CAS, F, K, NY, PMA, SEL, US, W, isotypes; Live at MO).

Creeping epiphyte or terrestrial; stems elongate, to 60 cm long or more, ca. 1.5 cm diam.; internodes to 1.5 cm long, shorter near apex; leaf scars ca. 1 cm wide; roots long, thin, moderately dense; cataphylls 12-14 cm long, green, acute and apiculate at apex, drying tan, weathering to reticulate fibers and persisting.

LEAVES spreading; petioles 7-19 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, triangular, sharply sulcate, sharply 1-ribbed abaxially; geniculum 1-3 cm long, shaped like petiole; blades elliptic to oblanceolate-elliptic, coriaceous, abruptly short to long acuminate at apex (the acumen minutely apiculate), acute to obtuse at base, 17-40 cm long, 5-16 cm wide, broadest near middle or above; both surfaces glossy, the upper surface minutely glandular-punctate; lower surface minutely and more or less densely glandular-punctate; midrib raised above, narrowly acute, diminishing toward apex, sharply and acutely raised below; primary lateral veins 14-18 per side, departing midrib at ca. 45° angle, sunken above, raised below, almost straight to the collective vein; interprimary veins sunken above, raised below; collective vein arising from the base, 5-8 mm from the margin, sunken above, raised below.

INFLORESCENCE erect-spreading, longer than the leaves; peduncle 25-49 cm long, 5-7 mm diam., conspicuously 1-4-ribbed, 3-7 times longer than petioles; spathe subcoriaceous, pale green, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 11-15 cm long, 1.5-2.7 cm wide, broadest near or above the middle, abruptly acuminate at apex, obtuse at base, inserted at ca. 70° angle on peduncle; spadix green to yellow, turning reddish, 5-18 cm long, 3-10 mm diam. at base, 2-6 mm diam. at apex, held at 180° angle from peduncle; flowers rhombic, 2.5-3.5 mm long, 1.5-3.5 mm wide, the sides straight to slightly sigmoid, 3-5 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 7-9 flowers visible in alternate spiral; lateral tepals 1-1.5 mm wide, the inner margin straight to convex; pistil slightly raised at anthesis; stigma ca. 0.8 mm long, oblong, brush-like, exserted; anthers (dry) ca. 3 mm long, 5 mm wide; thecae ellipsoid, scarcely divaricate.

INFRUCTESCENCE spreading-pendent; spathe reflexed, sometimes absent; spadix 11÷45 cm long, 1-1.5 cm diam.; berries red, oblong-elliptic, moderately acute toward apex, 6-10 mm long, prominently exserted. Figs. 164 and 166.

Anthurium vallense ranges from Panama to Colombia, though it is interesting to note that in Panama, it has been collected only west of the isthmus where it occurs in premontane wet, tropical wet, and premontane rain forest at elevations of 350 to 1,200 m. In Colombia, the species may occur almost at sea level.

Anthurium vallense is in section Porphyrochitonium and is characterized by elliptic to oblan-ceolate-elliptic, glandular-punctate leaves that dry yellowish green and especially by the conspicuous network of weathered, fibrous cataphylls that persist. It is not easily confused with any other species.


Map of Mesoamerican specimens with coordinates

Panama CoclŽ: 710-800 m, 89.39N 80.36W, 22 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68737A (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 900-1000 m, 8.40N 80.10W, 24 July 1983, C. Hamilton, K. Krager, J. Miller & L. Miller 4113 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m,, 3 Feb. 1983, C. Hamilton & G. Davidse 2668 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 775 m, 08.36N 80.07W, 25 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74791 (IBE, MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 800 m, 08.39N 80.36W, 26 March 1993, Thomas B. Croat 74859 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 800-900 m, 8.38N 80.09W, 11 July 1987, Thomas B. Croat 67119 (B, DUKE, K, M, MO, TEX, US).
Panama CoclŽ: 710-800 m, 89.39N 80.36W, 22 June 1988, Thomas B. Croat 68737 (MO, SEL).
Panama CoclŽ: 800-900 m, 08.37N 80.07W, 11 July 1987, Gordon McPherson 11210 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 700-750 m, 8.38N 80.35W, 27 Nov. 1985, Gordon McPherson 7681 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 500 m, 8.42N 80.28W, 12 Jan. 1986, Gordon McPherson 7974 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 900 m, 8.37.4N 80.7.4W, 15 December 1986, Gordon McPherson 10042 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 200-400 m, 8.42.43N 80.37.15W, 3 Feb 1983, G. Davidse & C.W. Hamilton 23584 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 800 m, 8.38N 80.17W, 16 Nov. 1983, H.W. Churchill 3890 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 800 m, 8.38N 80.17W, 16 Nov. 1983, H.W. Churchill 3891 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 900 m, 8.37N 80.06W, 25 Nov. 1985, G. de Nevers, A. Henderson, H. Herrera, G. McPherson & L. Brako 6346 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 8.37N 80.06W, 26 Nov. 1985, G. de Nevers, A. Henderson, H. Herrera, G. McPherson & L. Brako 6361 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: 650-750 m, 8.38N 80.39W, 27 Nov. 1985, G. de Nevers, A. Henderson, H. Herrera, G. McPherson & L. Brako 6388 (MO).
Panama CoclŽ: El Copé area, 800 m, 8.39N 80.36W, 31 Mar. 1993, Thomas B. Croat 75069 (K, MO, PAN, SAR, US).
Panama CoclŽ: 800 m, 08.36N 80.07W, 6 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76654 (AAU, COL, GB, MEX, MO, PMA, VEN).
Panama CoclŽ: 770 m, 08.38N 80.35W, 12 July 1994, Thomas B. Croat & Guanghua Zhu 76756 (JBGP, MO, PMA, US, WU).
Panama CoclŽ: 875 m,, 3 Jan. 1974, Nee & Dwyer 9143 (COL).
Panama Veraguas: 1100-1400 m, 8.35N 81.05W, 15 July 1983, C. Hamilton & K. Krager 3978 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: Río Caloveboro,, , Sytsma 4768 (KYO, MO).
Panama Veraguas: 480 m, 8.33N 81.08W, 28 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66917 (MO).
Panama Veraguas: 670 m, 8.33N 81.08W, 28 June 1987, Thomas B. Croat 66970 (MO).

Map of South American Specimens with coordinates

Colombia Choco: 930 m, 4.56N 76.29W, 11 May 1983, Thomas B. Croat 56628 (CM, COL, JAUM, MO, NY).
Colombia Choco: 465 m, 5.44N 76.28W, 16 March 1984, Thomas B. Croat 57509 (COL, MO).
Colombia Choco: 300-1000 m,, 9 Jan. 1973, Forero & Gentry 793 (COL, MO).
Colombia Choco: 600-900 m,, 22 Feb 1977, Forero et al. 3201 (COL, MO, Ny).
Colombia Choco: 80 m,, 19 May 1931, Archer 2164 (US).
Colombia Choco: Río San Juan, 200 - 275 m,, 24 Apr. 1939, Killip 35238 (COL).
Colombia Choco: 900 m,, 24 Jan. 1983, Diaz 3937 (COL).
Colombia Choco: Mun. Tado, 500 - 520 m,, 25 Apr. 1991, Gonzalez 2405 (COL).
Colombia Choco: Mun. Tado, 600 m,, 24 Oct. 1991, Betancur et al. 2963a (COL).
Colombia Risaralda:, 31 Mar. 1992, Alonso et al. 9669 (COL).
Colombia Valle del Cauca: Bajo Calima, 100 m, 03.59N 76.58W, 20 July 1984, Al Gentry & Myriam Monsalve 48399 (JAUM, MO, NY).
Colombia Valle del Cauca: Bajo Calima, 03.56N 77.08W, 18 April 1987, Al Gentry, M. Monsalve, & D. Faber-Langendoen 57095 (MO).
Colombia Valle del Cauca: 5 - 50 m,, 28 Jan. 1944, Cuatrecasas 15759 (US).
Peru Amazonas: 1780 m,, 31 Mayo 1989, C. Díaz & J. Campos 3603 (COL, MO).