Philodendron wilburii Croat & Grayum var. longipedunculatum Croat& Grayum, var. nov.
TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: vic.m of San Vito de Java, ca. 1 km S of San Vito on road to Villa Neily, 8E48'N, 82E57'W, 1100 m, 13 June 1987, Croat 66169 (holotype, MO--3610645; isotypes, CR, K, NY, US. Figures 459--464.
Planta plerumque terrestris, interdum hemiepiphytica; caulis scandens; internodia 3--15 cm longa, 1.3--1.7 cm diam.; cataphylla mollia, 7--15 cm longa, acute D-formata, plerumque acute 2-costata, decidua; petiolus subteres vel obtuse complanatus adaxialiter, 16--55 cm longa, 5--10 mm diam.; lamina 22--35 cm longa, 16--31 cm lata, triangulari-ovata, lobis posticis angustis, patentibus; inflorescentia 1--2; pedunculus 11--29.5 cm longus, 5--10 mm diam., subteres; spatha 8.7--18 cm longa, saepe viridis omnino; lamina spathae extus viridi vel flaviviridi aut eburnea vel citrina, intus pallide viridi, cremea, albida aut suffusa rubra; tubo spathae extus virenti vel atriviridi, intus atrimarronino vel atripurpureo, rubro, rubriviolaceo aut violaceo; pistilla (5)6--7(8)-locularia; loculi 1--2-ovulati; baccae aurantiacae.
Usually terrestrial, sometimes hemiepiphytic; internodes 3--15 cm long, 1.3--1.7 cm diam.; cataphylls soft, 7--15 cm long, sharply D-shaped, usually sharply 2-ribbed, sometimes unribbed or sharply 1-ribbed; petioles 16--55 cm long, 5-10 mm diam., obtusely flattened or bluntly D-shaped adaxially; blades triangular-ovate with spreading lobes, 22--35 cm long (averaging 28 cm), 16--31 cm wide (averaging 21 cm; 1.03--1.4 times longer than wide, averaging 1.3 times), (0.6--1.3 times longer than petiole); sinus usually arcuate or arcuate with decurrent petiole. INFLORESCENCES 1 or 2 per axil; peduncle 11--29 cm long, 5-10 mm diam.; spathe 8.7--18 cm long; spadix 6.7--11.2 cm long; pistillate portion 2.8--5.5 cm long; ovary (5)6--7(8)-locular; ovules 1--2 per locule. Berries bright orange (mature) or white (immature); seeds yellow-orange, narrowly ellipsoid.
The flowering phenology of Philodendron wilburii var. longipedunculatum is poorly known. It appears to be bimodal or, in any event, unlike the pattern of any other species. All flowering collections have been made between September and April, in the late rainy season and throughout the dry season. However, post-anthesis flowering collections from July make it obvious that some flowering also takes place during June or July, perhaps both months. Other post-anthesis collections are from January through April and also in September. The only mature infructescence was collected in March.
Philodendron wilburii var. longipedunculatum is known principally from eastern Costa Rica and western Panama with an outlying population at Tapantí in Cartago Province, at 900 to 1400 m elevation, especially on the Atlantic slope but also on the Pacific slope at lower elevations (40 to 450 m). The Pacific coastal populations range from Carara to the Osa and Burica Peninsulas in Puntarenas Province, with outlying populations on the Azuero Peninsula and in the Canal Area of Panama.
Philodendron wilburii var. longipedunculation is distinguished by the sharply two-ribbed, deciduous cataphylls, subterete, moderately firm petioles, typically triangular-ovate blades often drying reddish to yellowish brown and usually with narrow, spreading lobes, and very long-pedunculate inflorescences.
The highland populations differ from those of the lowlands in having longer posterior lobes which are narrower and more prominently directed outward, averaging about 11 cm long (versus about 8 cm long for the lowland populations). The lowland populations have proportionately narrower blades (owing to their lack of long, outward-directed lobes), averaging 1.6 times longer than wide (versus 1.3 times for highland populations).
Lowland populations in the vicinity of the Burica Peninsula have somewhat thicker blades drying with a minutely pustular or granular lower surface with the secretory ducts mostly not visible. In contrast, blades of highland populations dry darker brown to almost blackened on the upper surface and are smooth on the lower surface with the secretory ducts clearly visible and alternating with the minor veins.
The Azuero population, represented by Croat 34476, has leaf blades that dry somewhat blackened and have posterior lobes somewhat less narrowed and less directed outward than those of the highland Chiriquí populations. The Canal Area populations, represented by Croat 12351 and Croat & Zhu 77083, also differ in having proportionately longer petioles than material elsewhere. The latter collection is also exceptional in having four inflorescences per axil.
Grayum & Sleeper 3435 is a noteworthy collection from Tapantí, Cartago Province, Costa Rica. It is unusual both in being from well out of the normal range of the variety, but also in having narrower leaf blades and shorter peduncules. Perhaps it represents another taxon.
Additional specimens examined.
COSTA RICA. Cartago: Tapantí Region, N of Quebrada Casa Blanca, 1300 m, 9E47'N, 83E48'W, Grayum & Sleeper 3435 (AAU, CR, MO). Puntarenas: San Vito--Ciudad Neily, Fila de Cal, ca. 500--620 m, 8E41'N, 82E56'30"W, Grayum et al. 6048 (CR, INB, K, MO, PMA); Osa Peninsula, vic. Rincón de Osa, 250--540 m, 8E42'N, 83E31'W, Croat & Grayum 59879 (CR, MO); Quebrada Banegas--Río Riyito, ca. 7 km W of Rincón de Osa, 100--300 m, 8E41'N, 83E33'W, Grayum 4089 (CR, MO); Rincón--Aguabuena, road to Rancho Quemado, 100 m, 8E40'N, 83E31'W, G. Herrera 4619 (CR, INB, MO); Finca Loma Linda, 1 mile SW of Cañas Gordas, 1140 m, Croat 22310 (F, MO); Río Piedras Blancas, Fila Costeña, Fila Cruces, Cerro Anguciana, 950--1150 m, 8E49'18"N, 83E11'15"W, Grayum 10650 (CR, INB, MO); Quebrada Bonita, to ca. 1 km E of Costanera highway, Carara Reserve, 30--40 m, 9E47'N, 84E37'W, Grayum 4759 (CR, L, MEXU, MO). San José: San Isidro de El General--Dominical, 4.8 mi. S of Río Pacuare, 1000 m, Croat 35249 (CR, K, MO, PMA, US); ca. 0.5 mi. above turnoff to Canaán at Rivas, 900 m, Croat 43429 (CR, MO); ca. 8 km SW of San Isidro de El General, 1000 m, Williams et al. 28387 (F). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna--Chiriquí Grande, Continental Divide, 1200 m, 8E44'N, 82E17'W, Croat & Grayum 60372 (COL, CR, DAV, IBE, K, MO, NY, PMA, S, U); 1.2 mi. N of Continental Divide, 910 m, 8E44'N, 82E17'W, Croat 60454 (MO, PMA); 4.5--5 km N of dam over Fortuna Lake, 1100--1135 m, 8E43'N, 82E17'W, Croat & Grayum 60026 (B, CAS, CR, F, L, KYO, MEXU, MO, NY, PMA, R, S); Cerro Colorado, ca. 7.5 mi. from Chame Camp, 1200--1250 m, ca. 8E35'N, 81E45'W, McPherson 8868 (MO). Canal Area: Pipeline Road, near R. Agua Salud, Croat 12351 (DUKE, F, MEXU, MO, SCZ); 6 mi. N of Gamboa, Río Mendoza, 9E11'N, 79E46'W, Croat & Zhu 77083 (CM, CR, MO, NY). Chiriquí: Burica Peninsula, San Bartolo Límite, 18 km W of Puerto Armuelles, 450 m, Busey 597 (CM, CR, MO); Rabo de Puerco, 8 km W of Puerto Arumuelles, 50--150 m, Croat 21958 (F, MO); 200 m, 22482 (F, MO); Cerro Colorado, 34--35.6 km above Río San Félix, 1390--1410 m, Croat 37250 (F, MO, NY, PMA); 28 mi. above San Félix, 1200--1500 m, 33202 (MO); Gualaca-Fortuna, 10 mi. NW of Los Planes de Hornito, 1260 m, 82E17'W, 8E45'N, Croat 50093 (L, MO, NY); 5.9 mi. NW of Los Planes de Hornito, 1370 m, 8E43'N, 82E15'W, Croat 49852 (MO); 7.2 mi. beyond Los Planes de Hornito, 1165--1200 m, 8E44'N, 82E14'W, 67836 (CM, F, MO, PMA); 11.8 mi. N of Los Planes de Hornito, 1400 m, 48696 (MO); near Lago Fortuna, 1200 m, 8E46'N, 82E17'W, Croat 74907 (MO, PMA); 1100--1200 m, 8E45'N, 82E18"W, 66565 (CM, MO); 4.8 mi. beyond IRHE Facilities at Dam, 8E46'N, 82E16"W, Croat 68032 (MO, NY, PMA, US); ; trail to Río Hornito, 1100--1300 m, 8E45'N, 82E15'W, Thompson 5003 (CM, MO); 8E45'N, 82E18'W, Croat & Zhu 76416 (AAU, CAS, GB, MEXU, MO, SCZ, US); 76378 (MO, SCZ); N edge of lake, ca. 1100 m, ca. 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9081 (MO, US); 3.4 km N of Quebrada Chorro, 1.6 mi. N of center of bridge over lake, 1205 m, 8E43'N, 82E14'W, Croat 74955 (MO); Finca Loma Linda, 1 mi. E of Cañas Gordas near Costa Rican border on road to Volcán, Croat 23310 (F, MO). Darién: Parque Nacional Darién, W side of Cerro Pirre, 800--1,050 m, 7E56'N, 77E45'W, Croat 69001 (MO). Los Santos: Azuero Peninsula, Jobero--Río Pedregal headwaters, 300--700 m, Croat 34476 (MO, PMA). Panamá: Río Majé, ca. 4--5 mi. above waterfalls, near new Bayano Lake, <100 m, Croat 34726 (MO).