Philodendron ligulatum Schott var. ligulatum
Internodes sometimes weakly flattened on one side, (1)3--9(2) cm long, 0.5--3 cm diam.; cataphylls usually sharply 2-ribbed, sometimes weakly 2-ribbed; petioles 7--38 cm long, 5--15 cm diam., subterete, usually at most obtusely somewhat flattened adaxially, sometimes sulcate, sometimes sharply flattened on one margin adaxially, rarely D-shaped; lower leaf blade surface not colored; blades oblong-elliptic, 24--60 cm long, 8--19 cm wide (2.1--4.4 times longer than wide), 1.1--3.9(5.1) times longer than petiole, upper surface drying dark olive-green to brownish; sinus 0.5--3 cm (mostly 2.5 cm) deep; basal veins not evident or 1--3 per side; primary lateral veins 5--8(9) per side, departing midrib at 60--70E angle.
INFLORESCENCES 1 per axil; peduncle 7.5--17(28) cm long; spathe 10--19.5 cm long, spathe blade white or cream, sometimes sparcely red-dotted outside, spathe blade whitish or sometimes violet-purple near base of tube or throughout inside; spathe tube pale green thoughout, pale violet nearest base, somtimes sparcely red-violet outside; spadix (8.3)11--15.5 cm long; pistillate portion (1.4)3.7--6.5 cm long; ovules 1 per locule, contained within an obvious ovule sac; style similar to style type B or D, central dome sometimes prsent; stigma somewhat cupulate, truncate, unlobed to subdiscoid.
Flowering in Philodendron ligulatum var. ligulatum occurs in the early rainy season, between May and August, with a few flowering collections from October through March at the end of the rainy season and early dry season. Post-anthesis inflorescences have been collected from February through August (as well as November). It is possible that this species flowers bimodally, once near the beginning of the rainy season and again near the end of the rainy season or the early dry season. Immature fruits are known from July, August, and December, but mature fruits only from December.
Philodendron ligulatum is typically somewhat scandent in Costa Rica but is often more nearly an appressed hemiepiphyte in Panama. In Costa Rica, the number of inflorescences per axil is never more than two but in some areas of Panama up to three inflorescences per axil may be encountered, and in the Santa Rita Ridge area of Panama, a particularly unusual specimen (Croat 76954) has up to five inflorescences per axil. That collection also has proportionately somewhat longer petioles than other collections. This unusual specimen is otherwise identical to other plants of the species, even those from the same region. It is perhaps of hybrid origin.
A few Panamanian specimens of P. ligulatum var. ligulatum from the vicinity of Santa Fe in Veraguas Province (Croat 25692, 48906A, 66914) and in Coclé (Croat 49195) differ in drying yellow-green and having somewhat more coarse venation. These are somewhat intermediate with P. ligulatum var. ovatum.
Croat 33306, from 1200 m elevation on Cerro Colorado in eastern Chiriquí Province, has black-drying blades averaging slightly more than two times longer than broad, and is also somewhat intermediate with P. ligulatum var. ovatum.
A collection from the southern slopes of Panamá Province in the basin of the Río Madroño (Croat & Zhu 77041) is intermediate between P. ligulatum var. heraclioanum and P. ligulatum var. ligulatum in having sharply D-shaped petioles lacking undulate-winged margins.
A noteworthy collection from Antioquia Department in Colombia (Fonnegra et al. 1957) perhaps also represents P. ligulatum var. ligulatum, but differs in having the primary lateral veins drying paler than the surface below rather than darker as is the general case.
Additional specimens examined for P. ligulatum var. ligulatum:
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: 3 mi. N of San Miguel, 380 m, Croat 35643 (MO); Cañas--Upala, 4 km NNE of Bijagua, ca. 400 m, Croat 36262 (MO); near Río Zapote, 1.8--2.7 km S of Río Canalete, ca. 100 m, Croat 36360 (MO); Naranjo--Aguas Zarcas, 8.5 km NE of Villa Quesada, ca. 600 m, Croat 46971 (MO). Guanacaste. Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja Colecta, 400 m, Rivera 1136 (CR, MO). Heredia: La Zona Protectora, SSE of Magsasay, Schatz & Grayum 707 (DUKE); Finca La Selva, at confluence of Río Sarapiquí and Río Puerto Viejo, Atlantic slope, 50--80 m, 10E26'N, 84E01'W, Grayum 7673 (CR, MO); Folsom 9973 (MO); 100 m, Grayum 2800 (MO); Hammel 8827 (MO); Croat 61220 (MO); between Río Sucio and railroad tracks, SW of Finca Zona Ocho, Río Frío de Sarapiquí, ca. 110 m, 10E18'N, 83E52'30"W, Grayum & Hammel 5567 (CR, MO); near Porto Viejo along road near Río Sucio, 20 m, Croat 35730 (MO). Limón: Hitoy Cerere reserve, SW of Valle La Estrella, 150--550 m, 9E39'N, 83E02'W, Grayum et al. 5806 (CAS, CR, MO, PMA, US); Turrialba--Limón, ca. 11 mi. S of Siquirres, 650 m, Croat 43331 (MO); Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Barra del Colorado, Río Chirripocito--Río Sardina, 12 m, 10E38'N, 83E45'W, Grayum 9823 (CR, MO). NICARAGUA. Chontales: Cerro Las Nubes, El Tamagás--Loma San Gregorio, ca. 2 km N of Santo Domingo, 600 m, Grijalva & Ríos 3455 (MO). Matagalpa. NW of Cerro Musún, 500--800 m, Araquistain & Moreno 2570 (MO). Zelaya: Colonia Kururia, <50 m, ca. 14E41'N, 84E04'W, Pipoly 3974 (MO); plantel of Neptune Mining Company, NE Bonanza, 200--350 m, ca. 14E01'N, 84E35'W, Stevens 13029 (MO); Río Iyas, between Quebrada El Toro, 260--280 m, Vincelli 371 (MO); Río Sucío, 2 km E of Bonanza, 140 m, Neill 4011 (K, MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Station Milla 7.5 on Changuinola--Almirante Railroad, 100 m, Croat 38098 (CM, COL, CR, F, MO, NY); Almirante--Ojo del Agua, 3--6 km W of Almirante, 30--200 m, Croat 38212 (F, K, MO); vic. of Chiriquí Lagoon, Wedel 1479 (F, GH, MO). Canal Area: along Río Indio de Gatún, near sea level, Pittier 2794 (US). Chiriquí: Cerro Colorado, along Continental Divide 20--28 mi. from San Félix, 1200--1500 m, Croat 33306 (MO). Coclé: La Mesa, N of El Valle de Antón, 785 m, 8E37'N, 80E08'W, Croat 67113 (MO, PMA); 800 m, 25370 (F, MO, US); 800 m, 8E36'N, 80E07'W, Croat & Zhu 76669 (MO); 76694 (CM, MO, NY, PMA); Alto Calvario, 5.2 mi. above El Copé, 930 m, Croat 49195 (BR, CM, DUKE, F, GH, HNMN, MO, PMA, TEX, WIS); 750--900 m, 44734 (MO); 2700 ft., Sytsma et al. 4343 (MO); Quebrada Mollejón, ca. 5 mi. N of El Copé, 700 m, Croat 75050 (MO); road to Coclesito, 12 mi. from Llano Grande, 200 m, 8E47'N, 80E28'W, Churchill et al. 4018 (F, MO). Colón: Santa Rita Ridge road; ca. 22 km from Transisthmian Highway, 500 m, 9E25'N, 79E40'W, Hammel et al. 14474 (L, MO); along trail to Río Indio, beginning 10.6 km from highway, 380 m, Croat 34302 (MO, NY, PMA); 26 km from highway, 500 m, 9E26'N, 79E57'W, Knapp et al. 1737 (MO); Mile 6.5, 370 m, 9E21'15"N, 79E44'W, Croat & Zhu 76954 (B, CAS, COL, CR, F, K, MEXU, MO, NY, PMA, SCZ, US, VEN); Sabanitas--Portobelo, Río Piedras Lumber Road, 250 m, 9E22'30"N, 79E41'30"W, 250 m, Croat 75164 (MO, PMA); 75171 (MO); Portobelo--Nombre de Dios, 4.1 mi. W of Nombre de Dios, 50 m, 9E35'N, 79E33'W, Croat 67318 (AAU, CAS, CM, COL, CR, DUKE, F, G, HNMN, K, KYO, L, LE, MBM, MO, NY, P, PMA, QCA, RSA, TEX, US, VDB); Portobelo--Nombre de Dios, vic. Río Indio, 50 m, Croat 33603 (MO, PMA); above road 18 km past Sardinilla on road to Nombre de Dios, 150--300 km, Croat 26100 (MO); Río Boquerón, past Salamanca, 300--400 m, 9E20'N, 79E35'W, Knapp & Sytsma 2389 (MO); Río San Augustín flowing into Río Guanche, ca. 0 m, 9E30'N, 79E40'W, Churchill et al. 6017 (CAS, MO, NY, PMA, RSA); Río Iguanita-Portobello Road, <50 m, 9E27'N, 79E42'W, Croat 49778 (F, MO); Río Guanche above bridge on Portobelo Road, ca. 3--5 km above bridge, 50--200 m, Croat 36970 (MO); 4 km up Río Guanche, 0--50 m, 9E30'N, 79E40'W, Knapp 997 (MO); ca. 1.5 mi. S of road, <100 m, 9E27'N, 79E40'W, Croat & Zhu 76237 (MO); vic. of Guásimo on Río Miguel de la Borda, Knapp 9983 (MO, SCZ); Río Fató, 10--100 m, Pittier 3867 (NY, US). Panamá: El Llano--Cartí Road, 6.8 mi. from highway, 350 m, Croat 49102 (MO); Cerro Jefe, 15.4 mi. from Panamerican Highway, ca. 1000 m, Croat 49092 (MO); Serranía de Majé, high point of ridges S of Ipetí, 650--800 m, 8E45'N, 77E30'W, Knapp et al. 4490 (MO); El Valle de Madroño--La Saena, 2.5 mi. N of El Valle de Madroño, 180 m, 9E14'25"N, 79E05'W, Croat & Zhu 77041 (MO). San Blas: El Llano--Cartí Road, 1--2 mi. N of Nusagandi on road to Cartí, 250--275 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76580A (MO). Veraguas: vic. of Sante Fe, past Escuela Agrícola Alto de Piedra, at Río Segundo Brazo, 480 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat 66914 (MO, US); ca. 5--8 km beyond agricultural school, 730--770 m, Croat 25962 (F, MO); Santa Fe--Calovébora, 1.7 mi. past Alto Piedra School, 1.5 mi. beyond Quebrada Cosilla, 570 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat & Zhu 76862 (MO); Río Concepción, Lewis 2793 (MO, NY).