Philodendron wendlandii Schott,
Prod. Syst. Aroid. 221. 1860. TYPE: Costa Rica. Wendland s.n. (holotype, W?; lost). Schott ic. 2079. [Neotype here designated]. Figures 15, 450--451, 453.
sometimes occurring high in the canopy, rarely terrestrial, perhaps by accident;
stem short, scurfy, leaf scars inconspicuous, 1.3--2.1 cm long, 2--2.5 cm wide,
obscured by root mass; internodes short, 0.5--3 cm long, 1.8--3.5 cm diam.,
glaucous, epidermis fissured transversely; roots reddish green becoming dark
brown, blunt, branched near tip; cataphylls somewhat spongy or fleshy, 29--36
cm long, unribbed or sometimes sharply 2-ribbed, green to reddish green, persisting
semi-intact at upper nodes, eventually fibrous.
LEAVES rosulate; petioles 9--30 cm long, 1.5--4 cm diam., broader than thick, spongy, soft, sharply flattened adaxially, sharply convex abaxially, with adaxial margins erect on younger petioles, with dark green ring at apex; blades oblong-oblanceolate, coriaceous, slightly bicolorous, semiglossy, acuminate, sometimes long-acuminate at apex (the acumen inrolled, 2--4 mm long), more or less narrowly rounded to obtuse at base, 32--67 cm long, 8.5--22 cm wide (2.6--4.7 times longer than wide), ((1.7)2.6--4.2(5.2) times longer than petiole), broadest more or less near the middle; midrib flat to convex, broadly convex near base, convex toward apex, concolorous above, round-raised to convex, slightly paler than surface below; basal veins lacking; primary lateral veins 7--12(16) per side, departing midrib at a (50)60-70E angle, more or less straight to the margins, weakly impressed to sunken above, convex to weakly raised, darker than surface below; minor veins obsure above, visible, darker than surface below, arising from midrib and paralleling primary lateral veins.
INFLORESCENCES erect, 2 per axil; peduncle 3--10 cm long, 1--1.5 cm diam., pale green; spathe erect to erect-spreading, coriaceous, 12--18 cm long, ((1.5)3.4--3.6(5.3) times longer than peduncle), constricted just above the tube to 2.1 cm diam. at constriction; spathe blade oblong-ovate, pale green to white, sometimes tinged pink, sometimes white striate outside, 7--13 cm long, 2.6--7 cm diam. when open, (opening broadly elliptic in face view, white (rarely rose-red), pale-spotted with dark green central rib inside; spathe tube ellipsoid, pale to medium green, sometimes tinged with red, white-short-lineate in back outside, (3.5)5.5--7 cm long, 2.6--3.5 cm diam., pale green to white (sometimes creamy yellow or reddish with darker green central rib), minutely pale spotted inside; spadix stipitate to 1.3 mm long, light green; cylindrical, bluntly pointed at apex, (8.5)11--14.4(17.2) cm long, of nearly uniform width; pistillate portion pale green to yellowish green, cylindrical, or weakly tapered toward apex, 2.9--4.6(6.7) cm long, 1--1.2 cm diam. at apex, 1.1--1.4 cm diam. at middle, 1--1.5 cm wide at base; staminate portion 8.2--11.7 cm long; fertile staminate portion creamy white, with resin droplets, 9--13 mm diam. at base, 9--12 mm diam. at middle, 6--7(9) mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at the base or equally broad at base and middle, as broad as the pistillate portion, as broad as to slightly narrower than the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion slightly broader than the pistillate portion, white, 1--1.3 cm diam.; pistils 1.7--2.3 mm long, 1.4--1.7 mm diam.; ovary 6--7-locular, 0.7--1.3 mm long, 1.4--1.7 mm diam., with sub-basal placentation; locules 0.7--1.3 mm long, (0.2)0.4--0.5 mm diam.; ovule sac (0.7)1--1.1 mm long; ovules 2 per locule, translucent and contained within translucent or transparent ovule sac, 0.3--0.5 mm long, longer than funicle; funicle 0.2--0.4 mm long, (can be pulled free to base), style 0.6--0.8 mm long, 1.2--1.8 mm diam., similar to style type B; style apex sloping to weakly rounded, with depressions surrounding stylar canal exits; stigma subdiscoid, truncate, 0.7--1.1 mm diam., 0.2--0.3 mm high, covering center of style apex; the androecium truncate, prismatic, margins irregularly 3--6-sided, 1.2 mm long, 0.7--1.4 mm diam. at apex; thecae more or less ovate, 0.5 mm wide, more or less parallel to one another, sometimes nearly contiguous, sometimes distinctly contiguous; sterile staminate flowers blunt, irregularly 4--6-sided, sometimes clavate or prismatic, 1.4--1.6 mm long, 1.1--2(3.6) mm wide. Berries bright orange.
Flowering in Philodendron wendlandii occurs from the mid-dry season to the first part of the rainy season, with Costa Rican populations having been found in flower earlier (February and March) than those in Panama (May and June). Post-anthesis inflorescences have been collected between February and July, with an outlying collection from November. Immature fruits have been collected only in June and August, and mature fruits in September.
Philodendron wendlandii ranges from Nicaragua to Panama, from 10 to 1250 m elevation in Tropical wet forest and Premontane rain forest life zones. Most collections are from below 800 m elevation.
Philodendron wendlandii is a member of P. sect. Calostigma subsect. Glossophyllum ser. Glossophyllum. This species is distinguished by its true epiphytic habit, short stem, and rosulate, oblong-oblanceolate, short-petiolate leaves but especially by the petioles which are often broader than thick and sharply flattened adaxially. Philodendron wendlandii is one of relatively few truly epiphytic, rosulate "bird's nest" species in the genus.
Philodendron wendlandii is apparently related to several species of more or less rosulate habit and with elongate leaf blades and a green or purple line of demarcation between the petiole and the blade. These include Philodendron annulatum, P. auriculatum, and P. ligulatum. With the exception of P. ligulatum var. heraclioanum all of these taxa differ from P. wendlandii in having more or less terete petioles. Philodendron ligulatum var. heraclioanum itself differs in being a long-stemmed vine (versus rosulate in P. wendlandii), and in having D-shaped petioles scarcely or not at all wider than thick (versus sharply flattened and conspicuously broader than thick for P. wendlandii) and undulate-winged margins.
Additional specimens examined.
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: near La Laguna, 6--8 km S of Villa Quesada, 1200 m, Molina et al. 17553 (EAP, F, NY, US); Cañas--Upala, near Río Zapote, 1.8--2.7 km S of Río Canalete, 100 m, Croat 36376 (MO); 8 km NE of Villa Quesada, 600 m, Croat 46925 (MO); Río Frío, near Los Chiles, 30--40 m, 11E02'N, 84E44'W, Holm & Iltis 826 (A, GH). Cartago: Moravia--Quebrada Platanillo, ca. 1250 m, Croat 36683 (MO); 4 km S of Tucurrique, Río Vueltas, 690 m, Lent 1096 (F). Guanacaste: El Silencio, near Tilarán, ca. 750 m, Standley & Valerio 44785 (US). Heredia: 3 mi. S of Cariblanco, 760 m, Croat 35833 (MO); S of Río Sarapiquí, opposite Chilamate, 60--100 m, 10E27'N, 84E04'W, Grayum et al. 5311 (MO); La Selva Field Station, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiquí, 100--150 m, Croat 44313 (MO); ca. 100 m, Hammel 9086 (F, MO); McDowell 943 (MO); Folsom 9596 (TEX); Hammel 8222 (DUKE). Limón: Finca La Suerte, Davidson 3265 (MO); Hacienda Tapezco--Hacienda La Suerte, 29 air km W of Tortuguero, 40 m, 10E30'N, 83E47'W, Davidson & Donahue 8599 (MO, RSA); Croat 69732 (CM, MO); Hitoy--Cerere, Quebrada Cunabrí, Baja Talamanca, 500--800 m, Gómez 24081 (MO); Amubri, along Río Lari, 200 m, 9E29'40"N, 82E89'40"W, Herrera 2993 (AAU, CR, MO, US); Guápiles, 850 ft., J. D. Smith 4977 (US); Cerro Coronel, E of Laguna Danto, 20--170 m, 10E41'N, 83E38'W, Stevens 23863 (CR, MO); E of Laguna Danto, SW towards hills E of Río Zapote, 30--170 m, 10E40--41'N, 83E38--39'W, Stevens et al. 24988 (CR, MO); E of Río Zapote, 1 km from Río Colorado, 10--40 m, 10E40'N, 83E40'W, Stevens & Montiel 24313 (CR, MO); Stevens et al. 24683 (CR, MO); between Río Madre de Dios and Quebrada Cañabral, 380--440 m, 10E02'N, 83E26'W, Grayum et al. 8712 (CR); Parque Nacional Tortuguero, NE of La Aurora, Guápiles, along Río Sierpe, 30 m, 10E22'N, 83E31'W, Robles 2254 (CR, MO). San José: Carrillo Station, 700 m, Gómez et al. 21192 (CR, MO). NICARAGUA. Río San Juan: Bocas de Sábalo, 70--100 m, 11E03'N, 84E27'W, Moreno 26780 (MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam Area, Gualaca--Chiriquí Grande, 9.4 mi. N of the Continental Divide, 175 m, 8E46'N, 82E16'W, Croat 66819 (K, MO); 2.8 mi. N of Continental Divide, 850--950 m, ca. 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9653 (L, MO, PMA, US). Colón: Cerro Bruja from Río Escandaloso, 2000 ft., Hammel 3205 (MO); Santa Rita Ridge, Mile 10, Porter et al. 4740 (MO); Mile 6.5, 370 m, 9E21'15"N, 79E44'W, Croat & Zhu 76962 (MO). Panamá: Cerro Jefe region, Campo Tres, 3 mi. NE of Altos de Pacora, 500--800 m, Croat 22721 (MO); 3--3.5 mi. NE of Altos de Pacora, 7.8--8.2 mi. above Pan-American Highway, 700--750 m, 9E15'N, 79E25'W, Croat 68633 (MO); El Llano--Cartí, 10 mi. from main gate near El Llano, Croat 33715 (CM, MO); Mile 10.1, Nusagandi, 300 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76547 (MO). Veraguas: Santa Fe region, Santa Fe--Río Calovébora, 0.6 mi. N of Alto Piedra, 735 m, Croat 34141 (MO); Santa Fe--Calovébora, 1.7 mi. past Alto Piedra, 1.5 mi. beyond Quebrada Cosilla, 570 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat & Zhu 76820 (F, MO).