P. sect. Calostigma (Schott) Engl.,
Martius, Fl. Bras. 3 (2): 143. 1878.
Basionym: P. [rankless] b. Calostigma Schott in Schott & Endl. Melet. Bot. 19. 1832. TYPE: P. imbe Schott ex Endl.
Philodendron sect. Calostigma is the section in Central America with 48 species comprising 52 taxa. Philodendron sect. Calostigma is characterized by having basal or sub-basal placentation and typically solitary or few ovules per locule. Owing to its size and diversity, there are no other characters which completely characterize the group. Philodendron sect. Calostigma was subdivided by Krause into five groups, (termed subsections by Mayo, 1990). These subsections will be discussed here, especially in relation to the Central American species.