Philodendron glanduliferum Matuda,
Bol. Soc. Bot. México 27: 47. 1962. TYPE: Mexico. Oaxaca: Sierra de Juárez, along Hwy. 175, 1900 m, 15 Sept. 1961, Matuda 37247 (holotype, MEXU). Figures 180, 200--202.
Terrestrial; stem to 1 m long; internodes short, to 8 cm long, to 2 cm diam., about as long as broad or sometimes broader than long, dense; roots drying 2--3 mm diam., dark reddish brown, folded into irregular longitudinal ribs; cataphylls fleshy, sharply 2-ribbed, reddish, drying pale yellowish brown to brown, persisting semi-intact as a reticulum of fibers which are persistent; petioles 44--51 cm long, 3--6 mm diam., subterete, obtusely flattened near base adaxially, often purple at apex, surface inconspicuously short-lineate to striate, prominently so towards apex, with moderately dense, hair-like scales, at least near apex, scales many times longer than wide; geniculum darker than petiole; blades ovate-cordate, subcoriaceous, bicolorous, abruptly acuminate at apex (the acumen sometimes apiculate, 2--4 mm long), cordate at base, 34--47 cm long, 1.2--1.4 cm wide (1.2--1.4 times longer than wide), (0.6--0.8 times the petiole length), upper surface semiglossy, lower surface glossy, paler; anterior lobe 24--36 cm long, 11--28(38) cm wide, (0.9--1 times longer than wide), (1.9--2.7 times longer than posterior lobes); posterior lobes 11--14.5 cm long, broadly rounded to obtuse; sinus spathulate or V-shaped; midrib flat to convex, paler than surface above; basal veins 5--7 per side, with 1--2 free to base, 2--3 coalesced (0.7)1--2.2 cm; posterior rib not naked, to 1.5 cm; primary lateral veins 2--4 per side, departing midrib at a 50--65E angle, sunken, raised below; minor veins arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins; tertiary veins moderately distinct, darker than surface below.
INFLORESCENCES 1--2 per axil; peduncle 9 cm long, 6 mm diam.; spathe smooth, 12--13 cm long, (1.5--2.6 times longer than peduncle); spathe blade pinkish white outside; spathe tube magenta outside; spadix to 12 cm long, remaining in the spathe at anthesis; pistillate portion to 2 cm long, 10 mm diam.; staminate portion to 10 cm long; fertile staminate portion gradually tapered to apex, 10 mm diam. at constriction, scarcely constricted above the sterile staminate portion, narrowly rounded at apex, 11 mm diam. near the middle, 10 mm diam. at constriction; pistils 2 mm long, 1.9 mm diam.; ovary (5)6(7)-locular, locules 1.3 mm long, 0.6 mm diam., with axile placentation; ovules ca. 10 per locule, 2-seriate, 0.5 mm long, longer than funicle; funicle 0.3 mm long, adnate to lower part of partition; style similar to style type D; style apex somewhat rounded to flat; the androecium truncate, margins irregularly 4--5-sided, ca. 0.9 mm long. JUVENILE plants with lower blade surface purplish.
Flowering in Philodendron glanduliferum occurs during the rainy season, in June and September (Moore & Bunting 8889). Fruiting collections have not been seen.
Philodendron glanduliferum occurs in Mexico, Guatemala and Venezuela, with P. glanduliferum subsp. glanduliferum the typical subspecies endemic to Mexico and Guatemala. In Mexico, it is known only from the Sierra de Juárez, at 580 to 1900 m elevation in "Bosque mesófilo." It has been collected recently in Guatemala in the Sierra de las Minas in the province of Zacapa. Philodendron glanduliferum subsp. camiloanum Croat is endemic to Venezuela, where it is known only from the states of Táchira and Apure at 250 to 1200 m elevation in Tropical wet forest and Premontane wet forest life zones.
Philodendron glanduliferum is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Achyropodium. This species is characterized by its terrestrial habit, short internodes, sharply two-ribbed cataphylls persisting semi-intact as a reticulum of pale yellowish brown fibers, subterete petioles with an area of moderately dense hair-like glands at least near the apex, and ovate-cordate blades (about three-fourths as long as petioles) with a spathulate or V-shaped sinus (often overlapping in P. glanduliferum subsp. camiloanum).
Philodendron glanduliferum subsp. glanduliferum is not easily confused with any other species in Central America. Philodendron glanduliferum subsp. camiloanum, endemic to Venezuela, is distinguished from the typical subspecies by having sharply 2-ribbed cataphylls, petioles glandular more or less throughout, and blades with the sinus closed or nearly so with the margins of the lobes overlapping (at least slightly). In contrast, P. glanduliferum subsp. glanduliferum has unribbed or only weakly 2-ribbed cataphylls, petioles glandular only near the apex, and blades with the sinus V-shaped and the lobes not at all overlapping.
Philodendron glanduliferum may be confused with P. ornatum Schott where they occur together in Venezuela. The latter species is distinguished by its appressed-climbing epiphytic habit and typically larger leaves with the petioles merely warty-verrucose (never glandular) near the apex.
Additional specimens examined.
GUATEMALA. Izabal: Sierra de las Minas, 700 m, Forther s.n. (M). MEXICO. Oaxaca: Ixtlán, S side of Río Soyolapan, 1230--1260 m, 17E34'40"N, 96E20'W, Boyle et al. 2583 (CM, MO); Comaltepec, Highway 185, trail from Puerto Antonio to Cuaje, 1280--725 m, 17E39'50"N, 96E18'05"W, Boyle & Acosta 3980 (MO); Valle Nacional--Oaxaca, 660 m, Croat 78709 (CHIP, MO); 13.9 mi. above bridge at Valle Nacional, 2.6 mi. S of Metates, 1165 m, Croat 47936 (F, MO); 660 m, 39753 (MO); 1220 m, 43909 (F, MO); 39780 (MO), 4.3--6 mi. above bridge, 705 m, 17E44'N, 96E19'W, Croat & Hannon 65544 (B, MEXU, MO, US); 6--14 mi. from bridge, 580 m, Moore & Bunting 8889 (BH, MO); Coatlan--Mazatlan, Cerro Carnero, MacDougall 335 (MEXU); 409 (MEXU); Tuxtepec--Oaxaca, 55 km S of Tuxtepec, 630 m, 17E37'N, 96E20'W, Hammel & Merello 15481 (MO); Tuxtepec, Tuxtepec--Oaxaca, 4 km SE of Metates, Torres et al. 7811 (MO).