ContentsPhilodendron LazoriPhilodendron panamense

Philodendron llanense Croat, sp. nov.

TYPE: Panama. Panamá: vic. of Cerro Jefe, along road to summit which leads S off main road to La Eneida, 750--800 m, 9E14'N, 79E22'W, Croat 67092 (holotype, MO--3582669--71; isotypes, B, CAS, COL, CR, F, G, HUA, K, M, MEXU, NY, P, PMA, SCZ, SEL, TEX, US, VEN). Figures 268, 277--278.

Planta plerumque hemiepiphytica, raro terrestris; internodia 5--10 cm longa, 4--6 cm diam.; cataphylla 30--41 cm longa, plerumque incostata, persistentia semi-intacta aut ut fibrae nodi superemis; petiolus subteres, 49--76 cm longus, 1--2 cm diam.; lamina 51--77 cm longa, 39--60.4 cm lata, late ovato-cordata; nerviis lateralibus I (4)5--6(7) utroque; inflorescentia (1)2--3; pedunculus 3--10.5 cm longus; spatha 12.5--24 cm longa, lamina spathae extus atriviridi, intus alba; tubo spathae atrirubroviolaceo basi; pistilla (5)6--8(9)-locularia; loculi (6)12(20)-ovulati.

Usually hemiepiphytic, rarely terrestrial; stem appressed-climbing, to 1 m long, sap clear, viscous, sticky, spicy- to turpentine-like-scented; internodes usually short, dark green, soon gray-green, finally light brown, moderately scurfy, semiglossy, 5--10 cm long, 4--6 cm diam., usually broader than long, sometimes longer than broad; roots greenish, becoming brown, 3--4 mm diam.; cataphylls 30--41 cm long, usually unribbed, sometimes weakly 2-ribbed, light to medium green, sharply and broadly D-shaped, persisting semi-intact or as fibers at uppermost nodes, fibrous below, the fibers thin, pale, disorganized, light gray.
erect-spreading, clustered at or near stem apex; petioles 49--76 cm long, 1--2 cm diam., subterete, somewhat spongy, pale to medium green, rarely with medial rib adaxially, with adaxial margins sometimes acute, surface semiglossy to almost matte, densely and in conspicuously short-lineate, at least sometimes with a dark green ring at apex; blades broadly ovate-cordate, moderately coriaceous, abruptly acuminate, sometimes acute at apex, conspicuously cordate at base, 51--77 cm long, 39--60.4 cm wide (1.2--1.6 times longer than wide), (0.9--1.2 times longer than petiole), about equal in length to petiole, margins more or less hyaline, upper surface dark green, semiglossy to moderately glossy, drying dark brown, lower surface semiglossy to almost matte, paler, drying yellow-brown; anterior lobe 41--60 cm long, 39--60.4 cm wide (0.9--1.4 times longer than wide), (2.2--3 times longer than posterior lobes); posterior lobes 18.5--24 cm long, 16--31 cm wide, obtuse; midrib almost flat to broadly convex to broadly flattened, paler than surface above, convex, paler than surface below; basal veins 4--6 per side, with 0--1 free to base, the remaining coalesced 6--9 cm; posterior rib usually naked for 2--3 cm; primary lateral veins (4)5--6(7) per side, flat to weakly sunken, paler than surface above, convex, paler than surface below; minor veins moderately obsure above, darker than surface, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins, drying prominulous above and below; secretory canals distinct. INFLORESCENCES (1)2--3 per axil; peduncle 3--10.5 cm long, 1.1--1.2 cm diam., coarsely white striate near apex; spathe 12.5--24 cm long, (1.7--5 times longer than peduncle), oblong, dark to medium green throughout outside, markedly white lineate near the base, faintly so above the base, moderately constricted above the tube; spathe blade weakly and densely lineate outside (opening broadly elliptic in face view), white inside; spathe tube cylindrical, markedly white-lineate near the base outside, 6--8.5 cm long, 3--5.5 cm diam., dark reddish violet, suffused onto base of blade inside; spadix sessile, greenish white throughout, more or less cylindrical, protruding prominently foward from and out of the end of spathe (at anthesis), 10--17 cm long; pistillate portion creamy white (anthesis), reddish (pre-anthesis), weakly tapered toward apex, 4.1--5 cm long, 2.5--5 cm long in front, 1 cm diam. throughout, 1.1--1.5 cm diam. at apex, 1.4--1.6 cm diam. at middle, 1--1.5 cm wide at base; staminate portion 6--14.4 cm long; fertile staminate portion white, more or less cylindrical 1.1--1.7 cm diam. at base, 1.1--1.9 cm diam. at middle, 7--10 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest more or less at the middle, slightly broader than the pistillate portion, narrower than the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion 1.1--1.9 mm diam.; pistils 1.2--4.8(7.2) mm long, 1.1--2.4(4.3) mm diam.; ovary (5)6--8(9)-locular, 1.5--3.5(6.8) mm long, 1.1--2.4(4.3) mm diam., walls sometimes embedded with granular, crystal-like particles, locules 1.5--3.5(6.8) mm long, (0.2)0.6--1.5 mm diam., thin and membranous, ovule sac 1.9--2 mm long, with axile placentation; ovules (6)12(20) per locule, 1--2-seriate, contained within gelatinous ovule sac, 0.2--0.45 mm long, slightly longer than funicle; funicle 0.1--0.3 mm long, style 0.3--0.7 mm long, 1.3--1.6(2.5,4.5) mm diam., similar to style type B; style crown truncate at apex with lobed depression; style apex rounded; stigma button-like, unlobed or weakly lobed, truncate, 1.1--2.2 mm diam., 0.5--1.0 mm high, covering entire style apex, sometimes depressed medially; the androecium truncate, margins irregularly 4--6-sided; thecae oblong to cylindrical, 0.4 mm wide, more or less parallel to one another, more or less contiguous; sterile staminate flowers acutely to bluntly 4--6-sided, 2.1--2.4 mm long, 1.1--2 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE with spathe green outside, orange-brown inside; berries white, 7.2--10 mm long, 3.6 mm diam.; seeds more than 10 per locule, pale yellow. JUVENILE plants terrestrial or epiphytic; internodes short, brown, weakly glossy; petioles 29.2 cm long, more or less terete, moderately spongy; blades 28.6--37.7 cm long, 17--28 cm wide; midrib broadly convex above; minor veins distinct below.

Flowering in Philodendron llanense occurs at the beginning of the rainy season, in July. Post-anthesis collections exist from January through August, with immature fruits and mature fruits found only in the dry season and early rainy season, mostly January and March but also in June.

Philodendron llanense is endemic to Panama (though to be expected in adjacent Colombia), ranging from 250 to 800 (mostly below 500) m elevation in Tropical wet forest and Premontane rain forest life zones. This species appears restricted to the region of the Cerro Jefe and the El Llano--Cartí Road (hence the name "llanense").

Philodendron llanense is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Philodendron ser. Fibrosa. This species is characterized by its short, thick internodes, mostly unribbed, semi-intact, or fibrous cataphylls, obtusely flattened to D-shaped petioles (about as long as the blades), thick, broadly ovate-cordate blades with a deeply spathulate to closed sinus and with prominently raised minor veins upon drying and two to three green inflorescences with the spathe tube dark reddish violet inside.

Philodendron llanense is perhaps most easily confused with P. schottianum, which occurs at mostly higher elevations (generally 1000 to 1600 m) in Costa Rica, rarely to as low as 490 m or as high as 2200 m elevation. It differs from P. llanense in having sharply two-ribbed cataphylls persisting more intact and with a prominent yellow epidermis, and blades usually drying with the lower surface more yellowish with the secretory ducts more outstanding and usually with partial "cross-veins" between the minor veins. In addition, P. schottianum also has blades proportionately somewhat longer (averaging 1.65 times longer than broad versus 1.4 times longer than broad for P. llanense) and spathes shorter and nearly elliptic with almost no constriction (versus oblong and noticeably constricted above the tube for P. llanense).

Philodendron llanense looks superficially much like P. ferrugineum in live condition, and since they occur together, they can be confused. However, P. ferrugineum differs in having promptly deciduous cataphylls and somewhat more elongate blades which dry conspicuously reddish brown.

A single (Croat & Grayum 60209), sterile collection from the Atlantic slope near the Continental Divide at 590 m elevation in Bocas del Toro Province may also belong to this species. In addition to being out of range, this collection has the major veins much darker than the surface below.

Click on the Thumbnail to enlarge the picture.


Additional specimens examined.

PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna--Chiriquí Grande, 4.3 km N of the Continental Divide, 590 m, 8E46'N, 82E14'W, Croat & Grayum 60209 (MO). Panamá: El Llano--Cartí Road, 10--12 km from El Llano, 400 m, Maas & Dressler 1709 (U); Km 9.5 of Pan-American Highway, 200--300 m, 9E15'N, 79EW, McPherson 10822 (B, MO); Km 12, 350 m, Mori et al. 4628 (MO); Mile 7, 460 m, 9E19'N, 79E59'W, Croat 75104 (CAS, MEXU, MO, NY); Km 8--12, ca. 400--450 m, Nee et al. 8775 (MO, NY, SCZ); Mile 5--9, 200--250 m, 9E15--16'N, 78E59'W, Thompson 4621 (CM); ca. Km 16--18, 400 m, Tyson & Nee 7361 (MO, PMA, US); Mile 10.1, 325--350 m, Croat 67367 (DUKE, K, M, MEXU, MO, NY, US); Mile 12, 200--500 m, Croat 22910 (MO, PMA); Km 7--12, 360--400 m, Croat 25118 (MO), 25172 (MO); Mile 10, 330 m, Croat 33774 (MO), 33819 (MO); Mile 6.8, 350 m, Croat 49127 (MO); Km 12, Croat 26031 (MO); Cerro Jefe, near summit, <2,900 ft., Gentry et al. 3501 (MO, NY); 12 km E of Lago Azul, 800--1000 m, Gentry & Mori 13450 (MO). San Blas: El Llano-Cartí Road, 300--500 m, Liesner 1317 (F, MO, NY, US); Mile 14, 300 m, 9E15'N, 79EW, Croat 69251 (F, MO); Mile 7, 550 m, 9E43'N, 78E68'W, 60505 (CM, MO, PMA); Km 22, 350 m, 9E19'N, 78E55'W, deNevers & Herrera 7859 (MO, PMA); Nusagandi, Sendero Wedar, 300--400 m, 9E18'N, 78E58'W, McDonagh et al. 216 (BM, MO); 1--2 mi. N of Nusagandi on road to Cartí, 250--275 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76577A (CM, MO); Mile 10.1, 300 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, 76541 (MO, SEL); 1.9 mi. N of Nusagandi, 310 m, 76993 (AAU, CR, GB, MO, NY).