ContentsPhilodendron hederaceum var. oxycardium

Philodendron purpureoviride Engl.,

Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 526. 1899. TYPE: Ecuador. Guayas: Balao, Eggers 14710 (holotype, B). Figures 317--320.

Hemiepiphytic; stem appressed-climbing, scandent, often pendent, green becoming brownish to gray-green; internodes glossy, to 25 cm long, (0.8)1--2 cm diam., longer than broad, gray-green, semiglossy, more or less terete, epidermis drying light yellow-brown, conspicuously fissured or ridged but smooth, frequently flaking free; roots thin, more or less twisting or sinuous, few per node; cataphylls 10--29 cm long, unribbed to obtusely 1-ribbed or bluntly to sharply 2-ribbed, cream to medium green, magenta speckled, quickly deciduous, fragile; petioles 9--24 cm long, 8--10 mm diam., more or less terete, somewhat spongy, somewhat flattened adaxially, surface semiglossy to glossy, frequently fissured, medium green, sometimes maroon-spotted; blades narrowly ovate-cordate, subcoriaceous, concolorous or weakly bicolorous, acuminate to long-acuminate at apex (the acumen inrolled), cordate at base, 12--23(27) cm long, 7.4--19 cm wide (1.3--1.8 times longer than wide), (0.8--2.2 times longer than petiole), broadest just below point of petiole attachment, upper surface drying yellow-green, semiglossy, lower surface glossy; anterior lobe 10--21 cm long, 7.4--19 cm wide (2.5--4.2 times longer than posterior lobes); posterior lobes (2.8)3.6--7(8.2) cm long, (3.1)4.3--7.7 cm wide; sinus hippocrepiform; midrib convex to broadly convex and slightly paler above, convex to broadly convex and paler below; basal veins ca. 3 per side, with 0--1 free to base, 2--3 coalesced to 5 mm long, flattened to raised; posterior rib 0.5--1 cm long, never naked; primary lateral veins about 3(4) per side, departing midrib at a 55--65E angle, more or less straight to the margins, convex to weakly raised above, convex below; interprimary veins drying darker than surface below; tertiary veins more or less obscure to visible and darker than surface below; minor veins fine below, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins; "cross-veins" conspicuous (in Central America). INFLORESCENCES erect, 1 per axil; peduncle (3.5)5--7(11.5) cm long, 5--7 mm diam., subterete, purplish tinged, whitish streaked; spathe 11--15 cm long, (1.2--3(4.3--4.7) times longer than peduncle), constricted only slightly midway above the tube; spathe blade green to greenish white, with reddish speckling outside, 7--7.5 cm long, pale greenish cream inside; spathe tube violet-purple, short lineate outside, 6.7--7 cm long, dark violet-purple inside; spadix sessile; ca. 13 cm long; pistillate portion white to pale greenish white, 4.5--5 cm long, 1.5 cm diam. throughout; staminate portion 8.5--9.2 cm long; fertile staminate portion white, drying redding brown, 1.2 cm diam. throughout; sterile staminate portion 1.5 cm diam.; pistils 7.5 mm long, 1.6 mm diam.; ovary 4--5-locular, 6.2 mm long, 1.6 mm diam., with axile placentation; locules ca. 6.2 mm long; ovules 15--25 per locule, 0.2--0.25 mm long, 2--3-seriate, style similar to style type D; style apex with low style boss. INFRUCTESCENCE with pistillate spadix 6.5--7.5 cm long, 2.5--3.5 cm wide; berries 5.9 cm long, 2.5 cm diam.; seeds 24--25 per locule, yellow-orange, 1.2 mm long, 0.5 mm diam., thin and faintly striate.

Flowering in Philodendron purpureoviride is apparently aseasonal with post-anthesis material collected virtually year-round. Post-anthesis or early fruiting collections have been made in every month except September but mature fruits have been collected only in January and August.

Philodendron purpureoviride ranges from Costa Rica and Panama to the Pacific slope of Colombia and Ecuador (to Los Ríos and Guayas Provinces) from sea level to 1600 m elevation in Premontane rain forest, Tropical wet forest, Tropical wet forest transition to Premontane wet forest, and Premontane wet forest. In Central America, it is known primarily from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica and adjacent Panama, but also from the Atlantic slope in both countries.

Philodendron purpureoviride is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Solenosterigma. This species is reportedly the dominant climber in western Ecuador in forests around San Sebastián, south of Jipijapa in the province of Manabí (A. Gentry, pers. comm.).

Philodendron purpureoviride is recognized by its scandent habit, stems with the epidermis drying yellow-brown, conspicuously exfoliating and frequently fissured, terete to somewhat flattened petioles about four-fifths as long as the blades, narrowly ovate-cordate blades drying yellow-green, solitary inflorescences, with the spathe tube violet-purple on both surfaces.

Philodendron purpureoviride is closest to and perhaps inseparable from P. lechlerianum Schott from Peru. The latter species is known from the type collected at "San Gaván" (San Gabon) in the Department of Puno, Carabaya Province, as well as a more recent collection (D. N. Smith 6386) from Pasco Department. Philodendron lechlerianum differs in having more conspicuous and more prominent cross-veins. If these names prove to be synonymous, P. lechlerianum is older, and would extend the range of the species into the Amazon basin.

Among sympatric species, Philodendron purpureoviride is most easily confused with P. hederaceum, also a vine with ovate-cordate, greenish-drying blades. The latter species is distinguished by having stems usually drying green or dark brown and without a peeling epidermis. In addition, the blades are more coriaceous, typically more broadly ovate with more (four to six) pairs of basal veins (versus two to three pairs for P. purpureoviride) and generally have more prominent primary lateral veins. Philodendron purpureoviride may also be confused with some sterile specimens of P. wilburii. The latter species has much longer peduncles and stems drying darker brown and more closely fissured with the epidermis seldom exfoliating.

Central American material of P. purpureoviride differs from the Ecuadorian type by having conspicuous "cross-veins" throughout most of the blade. The Ecuadorian material, by contrast, has less conspicuous minor veins which lack "cross veins" except at or near the margins. In addition, Engler's description of the inflorescence was based solely on Eggers's field label. Since the holotype is sterile and no fertile material associated with Eggers's original collection is apparently extant, further studies should investigate whether these specimens all represent the same species.

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Additional specimens examined.

COSTA RICA. Alajuela: 3.5 km W of Fortuna, 2.5 km NW of New Volcán Arenal, 1500 m, 10E28'N, 84E41'W, Taylor & Taylor 11706 (MO, NY, US); Cañas--Upala, 4 km NNE of Bijagua, 400 m, Croat 36267 (MO); Upala, 600 m, Rivera 1559 (INB, MO). Cartago: 12 km S of Turrialba by air, 4 km SE of Pejibaye along Río Gato, 700 m, 9E48'N, 83E42'W, Liesner 14355 (CR, MO); Río Reventazón, Turrialba, 500--600 m, 9E53.5'N, 83E38.5'W, Grayum & Schatz 5242 (CR, MO); Tucurrique, Las Vueltas, 635--700 m, Tonduz 13312 (US). Limón: Turrialba-Limón, along Highway 32, ca. 11 mi. S of Siquirres, 650 m, Croat 43332 (MO); Río Telire, Bajo Telire, 400--600 m, Gómez 24119 (MO). Puntarenas: Zona Protectora Las Tablas, Parque International La Amistad, Finca Cafrosa, 1600--1800 m, 8E53'20"N, 82E50'30"W, Mora 139 (CR, MO); 1680 m, Alfaro & Navarro 29 INB); Cerro Anguciana, 950-1150 m, 8E49'18"N, 83E11'15"W. Grayum 10647 (CR, MO); Palmar Norte to Jalisco, 780--960 m, 8E59.5'N, 83E28'W, Grayum 9141 (CR, F, K, MO, US); 50--700 m, Croat 35203 (MO); Las Cruces--Neily, Fila de Cal, 1000--1400 m, Gómez 19635 (MO, US); Cantón Golfito, 100--500 m, Morales et al. 1903 (CR, INB); 9 km W of La Palma, along Río Rincón, Grant & Rundell 92-02203 (CR, MO); Golfo Dulce area, Cantón de Osa, vic. of Esquinas Experiment Station, 0 m, Allen 5370 (MO, UC, US); W of Rincón de Osa, 250--540 m, 8E42'N, 83E31'W, Croat & Grayum 59857 (CAS, CM, CR, MO, NY); Villa Briceño--Golfito, Fila Gamba, ca. 6 km from Golfito airport, <100 m, 8E41'30"N, 83E12'W, Croat 59902 (CR, MO); Parque Nacional Corcovado, Dos Brazos de Rio Tigre, Jiménez, along Río Madrigal, 600 m, 8E29'50"N, 83E28'55"W, G. Herrera 4728 (CR, MO). San José: San Isidro del General--Dominical, 9 mi. SW of Río Pacuar, 680 m, Croat 35348 (MO); Carara Reserve, W Montañas Jamaica, ca. 3 km NE of Bijagual de Turrubares, 500--600 m, 9E45'30"N, 84E33'W, Grayum et al. 5851 (CR, F, MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam area, near road to Chiriquí Grande, 650 m, 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9925 (MO). Chiriquí: Burica Peninsula, 11 mi. W of Puerto Armuelles, vic. of San Bartolo Límite, 100--500 m, Liesner 84 (F, MO, US); 450 m, Busey 595 (F, MO); "Ojo de Agua", Finca Hartmann, vicinity of Santa Clara (between Volcán and Río Sereno), 1520--1750 m, 8E50'N, 82E45'W, Croat 66290 (MO, PMA, US); ca. 13 km from Río Sereno, McPherson & Richardson 15968 (B, K, MEXU, MO, PMA, US). Coclé: El Valle region, La Mesa, above El Valle de Antón, 860--900 m, Croat 37421 (MO); Finca Macarenita, 800 m, 8E36'N, 80E07'W, Croat & Zhu 76677 (MO). Darién: Cerro Pirre region, Cana, 500--600 m, Croat 37631 (MO); W slope along Río Perisenico, 110 m, 8E01'N, 77E44'W, Croat & Zhu 77117 (MO). Veraguas: Santa Fe area, between Santa Fe and Calovébora, 1.7 mi. past Alto Piedra School, 570 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat & Zhu 76865 (MO).