ContentsPhilodendron hederaceumPhilodendron hederaceum var. kirkbridei

Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott var. hederaceum

Philodendron scandens K. Koch & Sello, in A. Braun et al., Append. sp. Hort. berol. 1853: 14. 1853--1854. TYPE: A cultivated plant grown in Berlin, origin not stated (holotype, B; lost).

Philodendron harlowii I. M. Johnst., Sargentia 8: 91, t. 14, fig. 1. 1949. TYPE: Panama. Panamá: San José Island, area 11B, Johnston 1030 (holotype, GH; isotype, MO).
Philodendron miduhoi Matuda, Revista Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 11: 95, figs. 6--7. 1950. TYPE: Mexico. Chiapas: Finca Esperanza, 160 m, 23 Dec. 1949, Matuda 18721 (holotype, MEXU; isotype, UC).
Philodendron cuspidatum K. Koch & Bouché, in A. Braun et al.,Append. Gen. sp. Hort. berol. 1854: 7. 1854--1850.
Philodendron scandens var. cuspidatum (K. Koch & Bouché) Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 528. 1899. TYPE: cultivated at Berlin Botanical Garden (holotype, B?; destroyed). Schott ic. 2679 [neotype here designated].
Philodendron micans K. Koch, in A. Braun et al., Append. Gen. sp. Hort. berol. 1854: 7. 1854--1855.
Philodendron scandens f. micans (K. Koch) G. S. Bunting, Gentes Herb. 10: 63. 1968. TYPE: original locality unknown (holotype, B?; destroyed). Schott ic. 2709. [Neotype, W; here designated.]
Philodendron microphyllum K. Koch, in A. Braun et al., Append. Gen. sp. Hort. berol. 1854: 7. 1854--1855. TYPE: cultivated collection at Berlin (holotype, B?; now lost).
Philodendron oxyprorum Schott, Syn. Aroid. 82. 1856. TYPE: Venezuela. [Synonymized by Engler (1899) but no specimen or illustration now exists.]
Philodendron acrocardium Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 179. 1858. TYPE: Guatemala, Wendland (holotype, W?; destroyed). Schott ic. 2498 [neotype here designated].
Philodendron pittieri Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 26: 541. 1899. TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Ujarrás de Buenos Aires, 9E12'N, 83E17'W, Feb. 1897, Pittier 11132 (holotype, B; isotype, BR).

Hemiepiphyte; internodes 10--25 cm long, 1--2.5(3.5) cm diam., weakly flattened on one side, medium green, minutely speckled to striate or smooth when fresh but drying minutely ridged, greenish; cataphylls 6--10 cm long, unribbed, weakly 1-ribbed or bluntly to sharply 2-ribbed, deciduous intact; petioles (6)10--27(33) cm long, 6--10 mm diam.; blades (11)16--40(50) cm long, 8--24(34) cm wide; upper surface medium to dark green, velvety when juvenile, drying brown to greenish brown, lower surface medium green, glossy, drying gray-green to yellow-green; primary lateral veins 2--6 per side, departing midrib at a 35--55E angle. INFLORESCENCES with peduncle (2)4--16 cm long; spathe 9--17(20 cm long, spathe usually green, sometimes yellowish white, spathe blade sometimes tinged purple outside; spathe tube dark, sometimes tinged reddish maroon outside; spadix stipitate to 5 mm, 12--18 cm long; ovary 4--6-locular, 20--25 ovules per locule. INFRUCTESCENCES with many seeds per locule.

Flowering in Philodendron hederaceum var. hederaceum is rare (known only in October and November) although the species has been found in pre-anthesis condition in every month of the year. Post-anthesis collections predominate in the dry season and earliest part of the rainy season from December through May but there are a suprisingly large number of post-anthesis collections made in November, a month when very little flowering generally takes place (Croat, 1975, 1978). Mature fruiting collections have been made from April and May, also indicating that the species may flower predominently in the dry season.

The range of P. hederaceum var. hederaceum is essentially that of the species. It is the most widespread taxon of Philodendron and, indeed, perhaps of all neotropical Araceae, ranging from San Luis Potosí State in Mexico to the Greater and Lesser Antilles, and down both slopes of the Andes, east to the Guianas and south to Brazil and Bolivia. In Central America, the variety occurs on both slopes of the Continental Divide. in Mexico, it ranges from sea level to 1200(1500) m elevation, whereas in Middle America and Panama it ranges mostly to 450 (rarely to 900) meters. It occurs principally in Tropical moist forest but ranges into Premontane wet forest and even Tropical wet forest. A single sterile preadult collection from Tropical wet forest transition to Premontane wet forest in Bajo Calima (Bay 237) is apparently also this species.

Additional specimens examined for P. hederaceum var. hederaceum.

BELIZE. Gentle 617A (MICH). Cayo: S of Guacamallo Bridge, Whitefoord 2837 (BM); Millionario--Grano de Oro, 1700 ft., Croat 23697 (MO); 0--10 mi. S on Hummingbird Highway, Belmopan, Dwyer 12718 (MO); Río Frío, 1.5 mi. W of Augustine, 450 m, Sutton et al. 205 (BM); 0.9 km before Caracol, 16E46'N, 89E07'W, Balick et al. 3149 (MO). Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin, Jaguar Preserve, 10 km W of Maya Center, off Southern Highway, 400 m, 16E45'N, 88E35'W, Balick et al. 2603 (MO). Toledo: along highway to Punta Gorda, 1 mi. E of road to San Antonio, ca. 100 ft., Croat 24511 (MO); Union Camp, 750 m, Whitefoord 1773 (BM, MO); Columbia River Forest Reserve, Gloria Camp, Holst 4422 (MO); Southern Maya Mountains, Bladen Nature Reserve, 16E29'31:N, 88E54'37"W, Davidse & Meadows 35763 (MO). COSTA RICA. Monell s.n. (MO); Tonduz 13322 (G); 800 m, Rojas 178 (MO). Alajuela: Cañas--Upala, 4 km NNE of Bijagua, ca. 400 m, Croat 36320 (MO); Escuela Centroameriana de Ganadería, (near Atenas), 425 m, 9E58'N, 84E22'W, Thompson & Rawlins 1256 (CM). Guanacaste: Tilarán, 500--650 m, Standley & Valerio 44563 (US); 44162 (US); 44984 (US); 46563 (US); 7 km N of Cañas, Janzen T-24 (MO); Quebrada Desprendimiento--Quebrada Sanguijuela, along Río Las Flores, ca. 450 m, 10E40'N, 85E04'5"W, Grayum et al. 4912 (B, CAS, CR, K, MO, US); Nandayure, Península de Nicoya, 120 m, A. Rodriguez & Estrada 141 (CR, INB). Heredia: La Selva Field Station, ca. 100 m, McDowell 810 (MO); ca. 100 m; 852 (MO); Grayum 2565 (MO). Limón: 20 mi. SE of Limón, road to Punta Cahiuta, near sea level, Croat 43174 (MO); ca. 1 km N of Shiroles, ca. 50 m, Croat 43278 (MO); Siquirres--Río Pacuare, S of Río Pacuare, 50--100 m, 10E5'N, 83E29'W, Burger & Liesner 6953 (MO, NY); La Bomba--Cahuita, 20 m, Gómez & Hampshire 20129 (MO); Limón--Bomba, 0--50 m, Taylor & Skotak 4443 (DUKE); near Carmen Station on Indiana Branch, 30 m, Standley & Valerio 48392 (US); Parque Nacional Bahía de Portete, 0-10 m, 10EN, 83E05'W, Thompson & Rawlins 1178 (CM); Río Jiménez, S of Guápiles, 10E17'N, 83E44'W, Barringer 2393 (CR, MO). Puntarenas: Cantón de Buenos Aires, along Río Ceibo, Ujarrás, 500 m, 9E14'N, 83E18'W, Grayum 10229 (CR, IBN, K, MO, US); Golfito, 20--200 m, 8E38'N, 83E11'15"W, H. Schmidt 603 (CR, MO); San Vito, Benzecry CR.CB.7C.109 (CR); Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarán, 1500--1620 m, Pounds 94 (MO); Cantón de Turrubares, along Río del Sur, between Río Carara and Quebrada Cimarruda, 130--150 m, 9E46'30"N, 84E32'W, Grayum 10420 (CR, MO). EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapán: San Francisco Menéndez--Tacuba, 1--3 mi. above road to Río Clara Sucia, 1000--1250 m, Croat 42135 (MO). San Miguel: ca. 50 mi. NW of San Miguel, along highway CA-1, Croat 32799 (MO). San Salvador: vic. of Tonacatepeque, Standley 19533 (GH, NY, US). Sonsonate: Pedregal de San Isidro, ca. 3 mi. S of Lake Coatepeque, ca. 850 m, Croat 42241 (MO). GUATEMALA. Los Amates, Kellerman s.n. (US); Watson 427 (GH). Alta Verapaz: road to El Estor (Lago Izabal), 7 mi. E of Highway CA-14 to Cobán, 1000 m, Croat 41480 (MO). Escuintla: Santa Lucia, 1045 ft., Kellerman 4547 (US); 5285 (US). Izabal: Montaña del Mico, between Milla 49.5 and ridge 6 mi. from Izabal, 65-600 m, Steyermark 38486 (F); ca. 7 mi. S of Puerto Barrios, 50 m, Croat 41811 (MO). Quezaltenango: CA-2 between Coatepeque and turnoff to Colombia, 1.9 mi. W of turnoff, 580 m, 14E41'N, 91E48'W, Croat 63394 (B, BM, MO, US). San Marcos: near San Rafael, 600 m, Croat 40769 (MO). Suchitepéquez: 1 mi. E of Mazatenango, <500 m, Croat 43757 (MO). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Lancetilla Valley, Tonacatepeque, Pfeifer 2130 (BH, US); San José de Texíguat--El Chorizo, 100 m, Nelson 10565 (TEFH); 4 km S of Tela, 0--100 m, Irias 190 (TEFH, UNAH); ca. 10 mi. SE of Tela, along Río Lancetilla, 10--150 m, Croat 42639 (MO); Quebrada Grande, ca. 10 km SW of La Ceiba, 80--140 m, 15E42'N, 86E51'W, Liesner 26335 (MO). Colón: Río Selen, 7 km E of Trujillo, Howler Site, Saunders 192 (MO). Comayagua: junction Río Yure--Río Humuya, 200 m, Nelson et al. 6182 (MO). Copán: 13 mi. E of Copán, road to La Entrada, 750 m, Croat 42529 (MO); Sta. Rita village, 650 m, Molina 33668 (MO). Cortés: Puerto Cortés--Guatamalan border, 2--3 mi. SW of Omoa, sea level, Croat 42555 (MO); N of Lago de Yojoa, 2--6 mi. from highway, 600 m, Croat 42739 (MO). Gracias a Dios: Ahuas Bila, 200 km SW of Puerto Lempira, 100 m, Nelson & Cruz 9316 (UNAH); 9292 (TEFH, UNAH). Olancho: Mpio. San Estebán, near Santa María del Carbón, 21 mi. NE of San Estebán, along road to Bonito Oriental, 440 m, 15E25'25"N, 85E34'45"W, Davidse et al. 35571 (MO; Río Guyape, San Pedro de Catacamas--Poncaya, Blackmore & Heath 1984 (BM); Río Wampú, 8 km S of Pisijire, 500--700 m, 15E15'N, 85E25'W, Nelson & Clewell 594 (FSU, MO). MEXICO. Chiapas: El Triunfo, ca. 10 mi. NE of Escuintla, 300 m, Croat 43859 (MO); 2 mi. SW of Guatemalan border, Highway 200 to Tapachula, 300 m, Croat 43771 (MO); Bonampak, near ruins, 500 m, Matuda 38715 (MO); Mpio. Ocosingo, 5 km SW of Santo Domingo, 600 m, Davidse et al. 20425 (MO); Esperanza, Escuintla, 150 m, Matuda 17789 (NY); 6 mi. N of Ocozocoautla, 1000 m, Croat 40584 (MO); Palenque--Bonampak, 60 mi. SE of Palenque, ca. 400 m, Croat 40167 (MO); Palenque--Ocosingo, Highway 199, 27 mi. SW of Palenque, 210 m, Croat 40302 (MO); Cerro Vernal, NW side, 25--30 km SE of Tonalá, 400--600 m, Breedlove 25617 (DS). Guerrero: Tierra Colorada--Xalpatlahuac, Tierra Colorada, Río Comitlán, 900--1000 m, Croat 45755 (MO); Pinotepa Nacional--Tlaxiaco, Highway 125, ca. 8.4 mi. S of Putla de Guerrero, ca. 1000 m, Croat 45807 (MO); Tierra Colorada--Acapulco, kms 366--367, ca. 380 m, Moore & Bunting 8840 (BH). Jalisco: Puerto Vallarta, 100 m, Mexía 1314 (UC); 24.1 mi. from Autlán, ca. 300 m, Moore & Bunting 8737 (BH); Quimixto, Mexía 1201 (BM, CAS, DS, G, GH, MO, NY, UC, US). Nayarit: Miramar, ca. 10 km W of Jalcocotán, Dressler & Wirth 2703 (US); Singaita, Lewis s.n. (BH); Philbrick 785 (BH); San Blas, Lewis s.n. (BH). Oaxaca: Pinotepa-Tlaxiaco, Highway 125, 4.4 km S of Putla de Guerrero, 850 m, Croat 45835 (MO); 12 km from Hwy. 200, road to Chayuco, 220 m, Miller & Tenorio L. 524 (MO); Tuxtepec, Rincón del Tigre, Mpio. Acatlán, 2 km from Acatlán on road to Capilla, ca. 100 m, ca. 18E31'N, 96E36'W, Gereau et al. 2190 (CAS, MO, RSA); Tuxtepec--Oaxaca, 10 mi. S of Valle Nacional, 700 m, Croat 39802 (MO); 0.5 mi. S of Valle Nacional, 120 m, Croat 39694 (MO); Esmeralda--Río Verde, Uxpanapa region, 1.1 mi. S of Esmeralda, 100 m, 17E10'N, 94E45'W, Croat & Hannon 63233 (MO). Puebla: Teziutlán--Nautla, Rancho Las Margaritas, Hueytamalco, near border with Veracruz, 19E57'N, 97E16'W, Conradt 218 (MEXU). San Luis Potosí: 6 mi. NW of Tamazunchale, 250 m, Croat 39271 (MO); Tamazunchale, Lundell & Lundell 7115 (CM); 6.5 mi. S of Matlapa, Ixtiamel, 325 m, 21E18'N, 98E47'W, Thompson et al. 1320 (CM); 1321 (CM). Tabasco: Tacotalpa, Cowan 1999 (MO); VERACRUZ: 927 m, Birdsey 226 (UC); Huatusco--Puente Nacional, El Mirador, 21 km E of Huatusco at km 45, ca. 1,200 m, Croat 44014 (MO); near Fortín, Cervecería Moctezuma, 1000--1150 m, Croat 39408 (MO); Mpio. Nautla, Cuatro Caminos, near Cerro Chico, 30 m, Ventura 3600 (DS); Mpio. San Andrés Tuxtla, Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, LOTE 71, 400 m, Ibarra & Colin 3126 (MO), 400 m, 18E34--36'N, 95E04--09'W, Manríquez & Colin 3126 (MO). NICARAGUA. Boaco: along Hwy. 33 from Río Quilan, ca. 300--310 m, 12E35'N, 85E32'W, Stevens 9335 (MO); Cerro Mombachito, 500--900 m, ca. 12E24-25'N, 85E32-33'W, Stevens & Grijalva 14749 (MO); Quebrada Río Grande, NE del Cerro Mombachito, 600--700 m, 12E25'N, 85E32'W, Moreno 354 (MO). Chinandega: Río Chiquito, El Viejo, 0--100 m, Atwood 2635 (MO). Chontales: Río Bizcocho--Río El Jordán, 350--550 m, ca. 12E12--16'N, 85E15--17'W, Stevens & Montiel 22589 (MO); ca. 2.8 km N of Cuapa, 400--500 m, ca. 12E17'N, 85E23'W, Stevens 3696 (MO); 3 km N of Santo Tomás, 280--300 m, 12E05'N, 85E07'W, Moreno 16066 (MO); Juigalpa, La Libertad, Río El Bizcocho, ca. 17.4 km NE of Río Mayales, 350--400 m, ca. 12E12'N, 85E17'W, Stevens 4090 (BM, MO); 4 km NW of Villa Sandino, 100 m, Davidse et al. 30786 (MO). Managua: ca. 4 km from Highway 12, near bridge of Río La Aduana, 80--100 m, ca. 12E02'N, 86E31'W, Stevens 5394 (BM, LL, MO); Highway 8, ca. 2.4 km SW of intersection with Hwy. 2, km 28, ca. 700 m, 11E57'N, 86E20'W, Stevens 3990 (MO); 4 km from Highway 8 to Highway 2 intersection, 800--860 m, 11E58'N, 86E18-19'W, Stevens 4539 (MO); Escuela Nacional de Agricultura and Ganadería, Route 1, 12 km E of Managua, Atwood 2930 (MO). Matagalpa: Matagalpa--Jinotega, km 140, ca. 900--1000 m, Guzmán et al. 229 (MO); Cerro Musún, ca. 300 m, ca. 12E55'N, 85E16'W, Stevens 12032 (MO); Quebrada Malacal, Hacienda La Bonanza, ca. 20 km from Matagalpa, 560 m, 13E01'N, 85E47'W, Castro 2391 (MO). Nueva Segovia: 7 km SE de Santa Clara, 600--700 m, 13E40'N, 86E14'W, Araquistain & Moreno 2191 (HNMN, LE, MO); El Terrero, 4 kms NE of El Jícaro, 500--600 m, 13E45'N, 86E07'W, Stevens & Moreno 2215 (MO). Río San Juan: Río Indio, San Juan del Norte, 2 m, Araquistain 3312 (K, M, MBM, MEXU, MO). Rivas: Volcán Concepción, La Esperanza, 200--400 m, 11E31'N, 85E37'W, Robleto 1618 (ENCB, MO); Isla Ometepe, 140--350 m, 11E33--34'N, 85E36'W, Robleto 997 (MO); SE of "La Flor", 300--800 m, 11E32--34'N, 85E37--38'W, Robleto 1915 (MO); 400--460 m, 11E33'N, 85E37'W, Sandino 503 (MO). Zelaya: road to Mina Nueva America, ca. 10 km from main road, Stevens 12672 (MO); Ibo Tingni, N of road between Puerto Cabezas and Río Wawa, <10 m, ca. 14E9--11'N, 83E29--31'W, Stevens 10663 (CM, MO); Puerto Cabezas, 0--20 m, 14E01'N, 83E22--23'W, Stevens 10684 (MO); Río Blanco--Río Copalar, ca. 29 km E of Río Blanco, 200--400 m, ca. 12E50--55'N, 85E0--05'W, Stevens 12179 (MO); "Las Mercedes", 160--180 m, Vincelli 331A (MO); Matagalpa--Waslala, near Río Las Carpas and Río Babasca, 540--580 m, 13E15'N, 85E32'W, Sandino 2426 (MEXU, MO); La Luz, ca. 200 m, 13E44'N, 84E47'W, Ortiz 1606 (F, MO); Cerro Waylawás, E side of Central Range, ca. 100--200 m, 13E38--39'N, 84E48--49'W, Pipoly 4172 (MO); 6 km SE of Waslala, 520--560 m, 13E16'N, 85E24'W, Moreno 17279 (MO); Estación Experimental "El Recreo", ca. 15 m, 12E09'N, 84E17'W, Rios 176 (MO); ca. 80 m, 13E39'N, 84E48'W, Pipoly 4450 (MO); Río Prinzapolka--Quebrada San Rafael, Waní, ca. 100 m, ca. 13E42'N, 84E50'W, Pipoly 4593 (MO); ca. 0--100 m, ca. 13E42'N, 84E50'W, 4739 (MO); Río Waní, Boca de Waspuke, 90--100 m, ca. 13E44'N, 84E53'W, Stevens 7195 (MO); Rama, Atwood & Moore 897 (MO); Caño Monte Cristo, "La Grupera", ca. 10 m, 11E33'N, 87E48'W, Moreno & Sandino 14709 (MO); E of campo Germán Pomares, ca. 60--90 m, 11E36'N, 83E52'W, Moreno 15137B (MO); ca. 10 m, 11E36'N, 83E51'W, 15187 (MO); Caño Monte Cristo, 1 km before the camp Germán Pomares, ca. 10 m, 12E35'N, 83E51'W, Moreno 14839 (MO); 14843B (MO); "Kurinwacito", 80--100 m, 13E08'N, 84E55'W, Moreno 23699 (F, MO); Cerro El Ocote, 700 m, 13E38'43"N, 85E07'06"W, Ortiz 1093 (MO); Comarca El Hormiguero, W of Río Uli, Neill 1921 (MO); Mpio. Rama, Loma Buena Vista, 100--150 m, 12E08'N, 84E12'W, Robleto 620 (MO); Mpio. Siuna, Siunawás, ca. 200 m, 13E43'N, 84E45"W, Ortiz 1481 (MO); Santa Rosa, Ortiz 102 (MO); Negro Wás Sector, El Empalme--Rosita, <200 m, ca. 13E45'N, 84E25'W, Ortiz 2163 (MO); Río Kubalí, ca. 7 km W of Río Iyas, ca. 200 m, ca. 13E29'N, 85E16'W, Stevens & Moreno 19278 (MO); Río Matís, Waní--Siuna, ca. 0--100 m, ca. 13E43'N, 84E49'W, Pipoly 4685 (MO); ca. 0--100 m, Stevens 4686 (MO. PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: S end, Cayo García, 0--5 m, Peterson & Annable 7287 (MO); Chiriquí Lagoon, von Wedel 1253 (GH, MO); 2668 (GH, MO); Gualaca-Chiriquí Grande, 4.2 mi. S of Chiriquí Grande, near sea level, 8E55'N, 82E09'W, Croat 66813 (MO, TEX); Changuinola--Almirante, Station Milla 7.5, <100 m, Croat 38130 (MO); Río Oeste, S of Almirante, 5 m, Peterson & Annable 7226 (MO). Canal Area: end of Pipeline Road, 19 km NW of Gamboa, 25--50 m, Nee & J. D. Smith 11070 (MO, US); Fort San Lorenzo, Maxon & Valentine 7001 (US); 40 m, 9E03'N, 79E37'W, Croat 69834 (B, CAS, CR, MO); near Madden Dam and along Azote Caballo Road, near Alahuela, 90--100 m, Dodge 16592 (MO); road to Fort Gulic, Lazor & Blum 5412 (MO, NY); Barro Colorado Island, Croat 6586 (MO, NY, US); Wetmore & Woodworth 874 (GH); Welch 19833 (MO, NY); Croat 6066 (MO); 11758 (MO); 9223 (MO, US); 5878 (MO); 10357 (MO); 12802 (MO); 10744 (MO); Starry 24 (MO); Netting 60 (MO); Hutchison & Wright 2920 (NY, US); Croat 11744 (MO, SCZ); 10383 (MO, SCZ); 7129 (MO, SCZ); Madden Forest Preserve, vic. George W. Green Park, Welch 19853 (MO, NY, RSA); Río Pequení, near Salamanca Hydrographic Station, 70--80 m, Dodge et al. 16592a (MO); Curundu, 8E58'N, 79E32'55"W, Croat & Zhu 76204 (MO). Chiriquí: W of Gualaca, 100 m, 8E29'N, 82E17'W, Churchill & de Nevers 4482 (MO, RSA). Coclé: El Valle de Antón, Folsom & Kauke 2776 (MO); Kennedy et al. 2209 (MO, US). Colón: near Palmas Bellas, Thoms 47 (MO); vic. of Miguel de la Borda, Croat 9895 (MO); 9885 (MO); 10 mi. SW of Portobelo, 2--4 mi. from coast, 10--200 m, Liesner 1103 (MO, NY, US); Portobello, 5--100 m, Pittier 2424 (US); France Field--Catival, Standley 30439 (US); Río Guanche, D'Arcy 9724 (MO); Gentry 6313 (MO); 100 m, 9E30'N, 79E39'W, Croat 75193 (MO). Darién: 3 mi. N of Santa Fe, Tyson et al. 4616 (MO, SCZ); Canglón--Yaviza--Río Chucunaque, 7.7 mi. E of Canglón, 50 m, 8E20'N, 77E50'W, Knapp & Mallet 3944 (MO, US). Los Santos: Tonosí--Jobero, 50--80 m, Croat 34454 (MO). Panamá: Corozal Road, near Panamá, Standley 26861 (US); 26841 (US); Río Tapia, 28112 (US); 4 mi. E of Panama City, road to Tocumen, Tyson 3483 (FSU, MO, SCZ); Cerro Jefe region, D'Arcy et al. 15520 (MO); 9E15'N, 79E30'W, Croat & Zhu 76215 (CR, MO, P, TEX); San José Island, Johnston 718 (GH); 919 (GH); 921 (GH, US). San Blas: Nusagandi, El Llano--Cartí road, Mile 10.3, 300 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76576 (MO). Veraguas: S of Santa Fe, ca. 450 m, Nee 8041 (MO); Bahía Honda, Elmore H30 (US); ca. 1 km above Cañasas on road to Los Valles, 230 m, Croat 37063 (MO).