Two new species (Philodendron stenolobum E.G.Gonc. and Philodendron paludicola E.G.Gonc. & Salviani) from the genus Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma are described and illustrated. An updated key for the species is presented and two species formerly considered synonyms of Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. are here considered as good species (Philodendron lundii Warm. and Philodendron mello-barretoanum G.M.Barroso).