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Anthurium umbrosum Liebm.,

Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn 1:21. 1849. TYPE: Mexico. Oaxaca: near Mirador, Uebmann 15790 (C, holoTYPE: F, US, isotypes).

Anthurium liebmannii Schott, Bonplandia7: 165. 1859. TYPE: Mexico. Oaxaca: near Teolalcingo, 5.000', Liebmann (C).
Terrestrial to 1 m tall; stems 2.5-3 cm diam.; internodes very short; leaf scars to 2 cm wide; roots few, moderately thin, descending; cataphylls coriaceous, sometimes tinged with purple, 5-9 cm long, emarginate and long-apiculate at apex, drying dark tan (B & K Yellow 6/7.5), weathering into longitudinal fibers and persisting.

LEAVES with petioles arching, subterete, sometimes narrowly and bluntly sulcate, or weakly flattened adaxially, 12-46 cm long; geniculum 0.7-1.1 cm long; blades medium thick, narrowly ovate to ovate-triangular, gradually long-acuminate at apex, deeply lobed at base, 20-43 cm long, 12-27 cm wide, broadest at base or midway between base and point of petiole attachment, the margin broadly undulate; anterior lobe 15-32 cm long, margin broadly convex, posterior lobes 4-14.5 cm long; sinus hippocrepiform to spathulate or parabolic, rounded to acute at apex; both surfaces semiglossy; the midrib convexly raised above, raised and conspicuously more acute below; basal veins 4-6 pairs, prom-inulous above, and below, third to sixth coalesced 2-3.5 cm, posterior rib straight to weakly curved, almost completely naked, the outer margin turned conspicuously upward; primary lateral veins 3-5 per side, departing midrib at ca. 50° angle, straight to weakly arching to collective vein, sunken above, flat to prominulous below: lesser veins visible, ± flat above and below; collective vein arising from the first basal vein, sunken above, raised below, 8-12 mm from the margin.

INFLORESCENCE usually longer than leaves, spreading to pendent; peduncle 25-84 cm long, 2.5-3.5 mm diam., terete, at least twice as long as petioles; spathe coriaceous, green, sometimes tinged with violet-purple, oblong-lanceolate to narrowly ovate-triangular, 5.5-13 cm long, 1.5-3.3 cm wide, gradually long-acuminate at apex, narrowly inrolled to 2.5 cm long, rounded to subcordate at base, inserted at 45°-60° angle on peduncle; spadix green turning dark violet-purple to brownish at anthesis, 4.8-12.2 cm long, 5-12 mm diam. at base, 3-6 mm diam. at apex; flowers rhombic to sub-4-lobed, 3.3-4.1 mm in both directions, the sides straight to gradually to jaggedly sigmoid; 6-7 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 6-8 flowers visible in the alternate spiral; tepals matte, weakly punctate, minutely papillate with scattered droplets, lateral tepals 2-2.5 mm wide, the inner margins broadly convex; pistils green, weakly exsertedjust before anthesis; stigma elliptic, conspicuously raised, large stigma drop apparent shortly before stamens emerge; stamens emerging from base in a regular pattern, the laterals first, soon followed by alternates, complete in basal one quarter before the laterals emerge just above midway; anthers cream, held in noncontiguous circle around pistil, ca. 1 mm long, 1-1.1 mm wide; thecae ovoid, slightly divaricate; pollen cream.

INFRUCTESCENCE spreading to pendent; the spathe persistent; spadix 11-13 cm long, 1.7-2 cm diam., berries usually developing in basal one half to two thirds;berries bright orange, ± globose, usually with 4 radial ridges, the apex broadly rounded to nearly truncate; mesocarp juicy, somewhat pulpy, orange with numerous raphide cells; seeds 2, obovoid, 6-7.5 mm long, 4.5-6 mm wide, 3-4 mm thick, depressed at apex. Figs. 209 and 210.

Anthurium umbrosum is endemic to Mexico and known only from northern Oaxaca, principally in ihe Sierra de Juarez, south ofValle Na-cional on the Atlantic slope at 1,200 to 1,800 m elevation. It occurs in wet cloud forests on usually steep slopes. The species is characterized by its terrestrial habit, moderately thick, usually narrowly ovate, long-acuminate leaf blades, green, coriaceous, lanceolate spathe, which curls under along margins, spadix green in early stages, becoming vi-olel-purple, and orange, 4-ridged berries. Anthurium umbrosum is in section Belolonchium and is closely related to A. Iancetillense. It is distinguished from that species in having shorter, more flexible peduncles, longer, more pendent inflorescences, somewhat smaller, distinctively 4-ridged berries, and a thicker spathe. Anthurium umbrosum occurs at much higher elevations, A. Iancetillense having been collected only in the Lancetilla Valley in Honduras at elevations of 10 to 600 m.The species is also similar to A. ovandense from southern Oaxaca and Chiapas, but that species has a much thinner blade that 15 minulely 
Anthurium umbrosum is also similar to A. lezamae from northern Oaxaca, but that species differs in having a minutely alveolate epidermal pattern (at least on drying).



Map of Mesoamerican specimens with coordinates

Mexico Oaxaca: Cerro Concordia, 800-1000 m,, , Morton & Makrinius 2727 (K).
Mexico Oaxaca: 1220 m,, 22 Aug. 1977, Thomas B. Croat 43905 (K, MO).
Mexico Oaxaca: 1210 m,, 30 June 1977, Thomas B. Croat 39787 (K, MO).
Mexico Oaxaca: 625-785 m, 17.44N 96.19W, 2 February 1987, Thomas B. Croat and Dylan P. Hannon 65535 (MO).
Mexico Oaxaca:, , Waimea 80p441 (MO). Mexico Oaxaca:, , Thomas B. Croat 74120 (MO).
Mexico Oaxaca:, 22 Nov. 1984, Martínez S., E. et al. 8773 (MEXU).
Mexico Oaxaca: Mpio. Comaltepec, 1600 m, 17.37N 96.21W, 8 July 1990, Luna , R.L. & G.J. Martín 655 (MEXU).
Mexico Oaxaca: 660 m, 17.44N 96.19W, 26 August 1996, Thomas B. Croat 78706 (CM, MO).
Mexico Oaxaca: 1020 m, 17.39N 39.96W, 22 February 1988, Rafael Torres C. con L. Cortes A. 11590 (MEXU, MO).
Mexico Veracruz:, , Liebmann 15790 (C).