Philodendron lentii Croat & Grayum, sp. nov.
TYPE: Panama. Coclé: El Valle region, between Finca Mandarinas and Finca Furlong, ca. 1 km off road, vic. La Mesa, N of El Valle de Antón, 800--900 m, 8E38'N, 80E09'W, 11 June 1987, Croat 67163 (holotype, MO--3582921; isotypes, AAU, B, BR, CAS, CM, COL, CR, CUVC, DUKE, EAP, F, G, GH, HMNM, HUA, IBE, K, MEXU, NY, P, PMA, QCA, RSA, S, SCZ, TEX, US, VEN). Figures 259--265.
Planta hemiepiphytica; caulis scandens; internodia 4--12 cm longa, 1.5--4.5 cm diam.; cataphylla 20--23(40) cm longa, plerumque incostata, interdum 1-2 costata, decidua; petiolus teres vel late D-formatus, interdum late sulcatus, 22--44 cm longus, 4--12 mm diam.; lamina ovato-cordata, 21.6--51 cm longa, 9--25 cm lata, truncata vel subcordata basi; nervis basalibus 1--3(4) utroque, liberis basi; inflorescentia 1--2; pedunculus 3--10 cm longus; spatha 12--21 cm longa, lamina spathae extus viridalba vel alba, intus atrimarronina vel creamea; tubo spathae extus albo vel viridalbo, interdum suffuso subroseo, intus atrimarronino vel violaceipurpureo; pistilla (5)6--8-locularia; loculi (1--2)4--6-ovulati; baccae aurantiacae.
Hemiepiphytic; stem scandent, creeping, assurgent, sap soapy-scented; internodes elongate, semiglossy to matte, 4--12 cm long, 1.5--4.5 cm diam., usually slightly longer than broad, medium to dark green, conspicuously pale striate at upper edge of each node, drying brownish, often narrowly ribbed (ribs irregularly ridged, sometimes warty), epidermis weakly fissured transversely; roots moderately few, to ca. 30 cm long, drying to 2 mm diam., reddish brown; cataphylls 20--30(40) cm long, usually unribbed, sometimes 1-ribbed, sharply 1-ribbed, or weakly to sharply 2-ribbed, greenish, tinged reddish, deciduous, intact; petioles 22--44 cm long, 4--12 mm diam., terete to broadly D-shaped, firm, dark green, sometimes purplish below, broadly sulcate, flattened or broadly convex adaxially, convex abaxially, with adaxial margins obtuse to rounded, surface semiglossy, densely and minutely white or dark striate-lineate; blades ovate to narrowly ovate or ovate-elliptic, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, conspicuously bicolorous, acuminate to narrowly acuminate at apex, rounded to truncate or subcordate at base, 21.6--51 cm long, 9--25 cm wide (1.4--2.7(3.3) times longer than wide), (0.7--1.4(2.25) times longer than petiole), usually about equal in length to petiole, upper surface dark green, semiglossy, drying dark grayish brown to yellowish brown, lower surface semiglossy to matte, paler; anterior lobe 28--45.5 cm long, 9--25 cm wide (4.9--10.2 times longer than than posterior lobes); posterior lobes 3--7 cm long, broader than long, broadly rounded to obtuse; sinus more or less V-shaped to arcuate, to 4 cm deep; midrib flat to broadly convex, paler than surface above, convex, tinged reddish or darker than surface, drying minutely granular below; basal veins 1--3(4) per side, with all free to base; primary lateral veins 8--14 per side, departing midrib at a 60--70E angle, weakly arcuate, ascending to the margins, weakly to narrowly sunken or weakly quilted, drying paler than surface, raised along the margins with the center collapsed (forming a channel) above, convex to weakly raised or weakly pleated, darker than surface, drying minutely granular, paler than surface below; interprimary veins weakly sunken or obscure above, visible below; minor veins visible, few, darker than surface, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins, minutely etched in upper surface of fresh leaves, drying raised. INFLORESCENCES 1--2 per axil; peduncle 3--10 cm long, 3--7(14) mm diam., pale green; spathe 12--21 cm long, (1.5--3.98(4.5--5.1) times longer than peduncle), margins reddish; spathe blade greenish white to white outside, 4 cm diam., dark maroon to cream inside; spathe tube white to greenish white, sometimes tinged pinkish or red, densely white-lineate outside, 6--9 cm long, dark maroon to violet-purple, densely white-lineate inside; spadix sessile; pale greenish to white throughout, cylindrical, tapered, 11-14(18) cm long, broadest near the base or slightly above the middle, constricted below the middle; pistillate portion green, cylindrical to ovoid-tapered, 6.6 cm long in front, 4.5 cm long in back, 1.1 cm diam. at apex, 1.3--1.4 cm diam. at middle, 8--11 mm wide at base; fertile staminate portion greenish white, tapered to clavate or cylindrical, 6.8--9.4 cm long, 9--16 mm diam. at base, 9--15 mm diam. at middle, 8--10 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at or near the base, broader than the pistillate portion, sterile staminate portion not detectable; pistils 1.6--2.4 mm long, 1--1.8 mm diam.; ovary (5)6--8-locular; locules 1.2--2 mm long, 0.3--0.6 mm diam., ovule sac 0.8--1.5 mm long, with basal or sub-basal placentation; ovules (1--2)4--6 per locule, 1- or 2-seriate, 0.3--0.5 mm long, longer than or equal in length to funicle; funicle 0.1--0.4 mm long (can be pulled free to base); style 0.1--0.5 mm long, 1--1.6 mm diam., similar to style type B; style apex flat or weakly rounded; stigma discoid, brushlike, unlobed, 1--1.3 mm diam., 0.1--0.2(0.6) mm high, covering almost entire style apex or just the center of style apex; the androecium truncate, margins 4--6-sided (4--5-sided); thecae oblong, 0.3--0.5 mm wide, contiguous or more or less parallel to one another; sterile staminate flowers 4--6-sided, 1.1--1.5 mm long, 0.8--1.3 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE with berries orange; seeds 3--4 per locule, 1--1.1 mm long, 0.5--0.6 mm diam.
Flowering in Philodendron lentii appears to occur during the dry season and early rainy season (February, March, June, and July). Post-anthesis collections exist from January, March through July, and November, indicating a somewhat broader range of flowering. Most post-anthesis inflorescences were collected between March through July. Immature fruits are known from January, April, and July while mature fruits are known from April, June, and July.
Philodendron lentii ranges from Costa Rica (Cartago) to Panama (Chiriqúi to Coclé), from (210)670 to 1800 m elevation in Premontane rain forest and Tropical Lower Montane rain forest life zones. In Costa Rica, this species is apparently rare, having been collected only near Tapantí and Moravia in Cartago Province and near Cariblanco in Alajuela Province. In Panama, it has been collected mostly in the Fortuna Dam region, at Cerro Colorado (both Chiriquí), at Santa Fe in Veraguas and at El Valle and El Copé in Coclé Province.
Philodendron lentii is a member of P. sect. Calostigma subsect. Macrobelium ser. Ecordata. This species is distinguished by its somewhat scandent habit, elongate internodes, deciduous cataphylls, D-shaped to broadly sulcate petioles (about as long as the blades), ovate, subcordate blades with the few basal veins free, one to two large inflorescences with the spathe white externally and purplish internally on the tube. Also characteristic is the orange berries. Especially useful for recognition is the upper dried blade surface, which usually dries dark with the lateral primary and minor veins weakly raised.
Philodendron lentii may be confused with P. heleniae, which has blades of similar size and shape with few pairs of free basal veins and petioles about as long as the blades. That species differs in having more slender stems, subterete petioles, and several to many small, red inflorescences. Although a few collections of P. lentii (Knapp 4970, Thompson 5022) report the spathe to be red, these cannot be confused with P. heleniae, owing to the much larger size of the spathes (mostly more than 12 cm long versus mostly less than 10 cm long for P. heleniae).
Possibly also belonging to this species is a sterile collection from Ecuador (Esmeraldas), Croat 72298, which differs in having internodes to 30 cm long, more numerous primary lateral veins (to ca. 20) and interprimary veins also sunken on live plants giving the blade the appearance of having very close primary lateral veins. This collection also differs in having the cross-veins prominulous on the lower surface toward the margin. Despite these differences, this Ecuadorian collection surely represents either P. lentii or another closely related new species.
Philodendron lentii is named in honor of Roy Lent, who first collected the species in 1967. Lent, a resident of Costa Rica, has been an important collector over many years and has collected many new species of Araceae.
Additional specimens examined.
COSTA RICA. Alajuela. 3 mi. S of Cariblanco, 760 m, Croat 35777 (MO). Cartago: Moravia--Quebrada Platanillo, Moravia, 3--5 km from Finca Racine, 1200--1300 m, Croat 36592 (F, MEXU, MO, US); Río Grande de Orosi, 0.5 km W of Tapantí, 1200 m, Lent 909 (CR, F). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam area, Chiriquí Grande--Fortuna, near Continental Divide, 1170 m, 8E44'N, 82E17'W, Croat 66647 (B, CAS, CR, K, MO, PMA, US); 1200 m, 60360 (CAS, MO); 1.2 mi. N of Divide, 910 m, 8E44'N, 82E17'W, Croat 60441 (K, MO, US). Chiriquí: Cerro Colorado, vic. of Cerro Colorado Copper Mine Development, 28 mi. above San Félix, 1200--1500 m, Croat 33273 (MO); Cerro Pate Macho, ca. 5 mi. NE of Boquete, 1800--2200 m, Croat 48567A (MO); 1600--1700 m, 8E48'N, 82E23.5'W, Grayum et al. 6358 (MO); vic. of Boquete, 1630--1780 m, 8E46'N, 82E25'W, Croat 66395A (MO); 66391 (MO); 66355 (CM, MO); Fortuna Dam area, 1100--1200 m, 8E45'N, 82E05'W, Thompspon 5022 (CM, MO); 8 km N of Los Planes de Hornito, 1250--1300 m, 8E45'N, 82E12'W, Knapp 4970 (MO, NY); 11.8 mi N of Los Planes de Hornito, 1400 m, Croat 48682 (CM, MO); 10.8 mi. beyond Los Planes de Hornito, ca. 1400 m, Croat 48712 (MO); 10.1 mi. NW of Los Planes de Hornito, 1250 m, 8E45'N, 82E17'W, Croat 50041 (CM, MO); 10 mi. NW of Los Planes de Hornito, 1260 m, Croat 50102 (MO, NY, PMA); Chiriquí Grande--Fortuna, 4.5--5 km N of dam over Fortuna Lake, 1100--1135 m, 8E43'N, 82E17'W, Croat & Grayum 60007 (K, MO, US); 60069 (K, MO, US); Gualaca--Chiriquí Grande, 8 mi. N of Los Planes de Hornito, 1.4 mi. W of Centro de Operaciones, along trail to Río Hornito, 1010--1130 m, 8E44'N, 82E14'30"W, Croat 67923 (CM, MO); near Fortuna Lake, 8E45'N, 82E18'W, Croat & Zhu 76388 (MEXU, MO); N edge of lake, ca. 1100 m, ca. 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9078 (MO, NY); Fortuna Dam, 1200 m, Hammel 2196 (MO); Quebrada Arena, 1050 m, 8E45'N, 82E16'W, Hammel et al. 14706 (CR, MO); 26 km past Gualaca, 670 m, 8E35'N, 82E19'W, Hoover 1329 (CAS, MO). Coclé: Penonomé--Coclecito, above Río Cascajal, 5.7 mi. N of Llano Grande, 210 m, 8E40'N, 80E26'W, Croat 67538 (MO, PMA); El Copé region, Alto Calvario, Continental Divide, 5.2 mi. above El Copé, 930 m, Croat 49204 (MO); Alto Calvario, 710--800 m, 89E39'N, 80E36'W, Croat 68724 (MO); El Valle region, Croat 14367 (MO); 2700 ft., Sytsma et al. 4369 (CR, MO); ca. 800 m, Croat 25434 (F, MO); Gentry & Dwyer 3683 (MO); 900--930 m, Croat 37481 (F, MO); 860 m, 8E37'N, 80E08'W, Croat & Zhu 76740 (MO, US); Cerro Gaital, 800--900 m, 8E37'N, 80E07'W, McPherson 11211 (L, MO); 830--900 m, 8E36'N, 80E07'W, Croat 74812 (MO, PMA); Hartman 3962 (OS); 1000--1100 m, 8E37'N, 80E07'W, McPherson 12150 (MO); N slope of Cerro Gaital, 800 m, 8E38'N, 80E07'W, Churchill 3924 (F, MO). Veraguas: Santa Fe region, Alto de Piedra, 800--950 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat 67004 (MO); Parque Nacional Cerro Tute, Alto Piedra--Calovébora, 0.5 mi. N of Alto Piedra, 800--1030 m, Croat & Zhu 76897 (MO); 1000--1250 m, Croat 48931 (MO).