ContentsPhilodendron edenuatumPhilodendron grayumii

Philodendron ferrugineum Croat, sp. nov.

TYPE: Panama. Panamá: along El Llano--Cartí road, 8.3 mi. above Inter-American Hwy., 380 m, 17 July 1987, Croat 67400 (holotype, MO-- 3582221--22; isotypes, AAU, B, CM, COL, CR, F, K, L, MEXU, PMA, US). Figures 165--168, 173--175, 185.

Planta hemiepiphytica; internodia brevia, 3--5 mm diam.; cataphylla (15)26--48 cm longa, incostata aut obtuse 2-costata prope apicem; petiolus teres aut semiteres, 41--67 cm longus, 1--1.3 cm diam., circa tam longus quam lamina; lamina anguste ovata, manifeste cordata basi, (38)56--85(102) cm longa, 17--56(62) cm lata, in sicco rubribrunnea; venis minoribus obscuris, arcte dispositis, ut videtur intermittentibus; inflorescentia 4--6; pedunculus 2.5--11 cm longus, 1--2 cm diam.; spatha 16--23 cm longa; lamina spathae extus pallide viridi, intus albida; tubo spathae viridi, extus dense maculato violaceo-purpureo, intus purpureo-violaceo vel pallide marronino; pistilla 8--10-locularia; loculi 4--7-ovulati; baccae aurantiacae.

Hemiepiphytic; stem appressed-climbing, pale to dark green, soon brown, to 1 m long, leaf scars conspicuous, 2.5--3 cm long, 2--5 cm wide; internodes semiglossy, short on adult plants, 3--5 cm diam., sometimes longer than broad, pale to dark green, becoming gray, finally brown, somewhat scurfy, sometimes transversly fissured; roots dark brown, to ca. 30 cm long, 1--2 cm diam., drying reddish brown; cataphylls (15)26--48 cm long, unribbed, except bluntly or sharply 2-ribbed near apex, green, blotched with purple-violet, to paler green or whitish to densely dark green speckled, maroon spotted or tinged, sulcate between ribs, drying reddish brown, deciduous, persisting weakly at upper nodes, rounded at apex margins clear to hyaline.
spreading-pendent, scattered evenly along stem, clustered at or near stem apex; petioles 41--67 cm long, 1--1.3 cm diam., (about as long as the blade), erect-spreading, terete or subterete, dark green, firm, weakly and obscurely sulcate adaxially, often obtusely flattened and obtusely ribbed toward apex, to bluntly and broadly sulcate near base adaxially, surface weakly glossy to matte, weakly and densely light green-lineate or striate, purplish red ring around apex; sheathing to 6 cm long; geniculum thicker than petiole, 2.5--3.5 cm long slightly paler than petiole; blades pendent, narrowly ovate, moderately coriaceous, bicolorous, gradually to strongly acuminate at apex (the acumen tightly inrolled), cordate at base, (38)56--85(102) cm long, 17--56(62) cm wide (1.3--2.3 times longer than wide), (0.8--1.3 times longer than petiole), about equal in length to petiole, broadest somewhat above point of petiole attachment, or at lower one-third margins hyaline, weakly to strongly undulate; upper surface dark to medium green, drying coriaceous, reddish brown, semiglossy to glossy, weakly arched along midrib; lower surface very weakly glossy to matte, much paler, drying with minute uninterrupted ridges; anterior lobe 42--70 cm long, 9--22.2 cm wide, ((7.5)12--27 times longer than posterior lobes), margins broadly convex; posterior lobes 14--27 cm long, directed downward or inward, sometimes overlapping, obtuse to rounded; sinus strongly spathulate to hippocrepiform; midrib flat to weakly convex, paler than surface above, convex to narrowly rounded, lineate, sometimes maroon spotted, dark green, paler than surface, drying dark yellowish brown below; basal veins 2--3--5 per side, with 1(2) free to base, 2--5 coalesced 2--4.5 cm, convex and paler than surface above, bluntly acute to convex below; posterior rib not naked, straight to weakly curved; primary lateral veins 5--8 per side, departing midrib at a 45--70E angle, more or less straight, slightly curved toward apex pale green to whitish, usually obtusely sunken, sometimes to weakly and bluntly raised above, convex and darker than surface below; interprimary veins weakly visible to inconspicuous above and below; secondary veins drying inconspicuous; minor veins moderately obsure, close and apparently intermittant, giving veins a bumpy look, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins. INFLORESCENCES semi-erect to erect, 4--6 per axil lower; peduncle 2.5--11 cm long, 1--2 cm diam., whitish at base; spathe coriaceous, 16--23 cm long (1.6--4.2 times longer than peduncle), slightly constricted above the tube, acuminate (the acumen inrolled), dark green outside; spathe blade with lateral margins rolled back, sometimes pale green outside, whitish inside; spathe tube green, heavily spotted with purple-violet outside, 6--8(12) cm long, purple-violet to light maroon, at least the lower 3/5, otherwise greenish white inside; spadix sessile; clavate, weakly protruding forward at anthesis, 12--20 cm long, broadest above the middle, constricted weakly above sterile staminate portion; pistillate portion pale green to yellow, cylindrical or tapered toward the apex to narrowly ellipsoid, 3.7--6.5(8) cm long, 1.3--1.5 cm diam. at apex, 1.6 cm diam. at middle, 1.1--1.8 cm wide at base; staminate portion 8.6--16 cm long; fertile staminate portion white to yellowish, more or less ellipsoid to clavate, 1.1--1.5 cm diam. at base, 1.3--1.9 cm diam. at middle, 1.1--1.5 cm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at the middle or at the base, broader than the pistillate portion, broader than the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion narrower than the pistillate portion, white, 1.5 cm diam.; pistils 2--3.4 mm long, (0.7--0.8)1.6--2 mm diam.; ovary 8--10-locular, 1.6 mm diam., with sub-basal (axile) placentation; ovules 4--7 per locule, 1-seriate, 0.4--0.5 mm long, longer than (or equal in length to) funicle; funicle adnate to lower part of axile wall; style 1.1--1.6 mm diam., similar to style type D; style apex flat, with raised annulus; style boss broad; stigma button-like with medial depression, 1.3 mm diam., 0.2--0.5 mm high, covering entire style apex except (including annulus) in center, medially and shallowly depressed; the androecium truncate, margins 4--6-sided, irregularly scalloped or lobed on at least one margin; thecae oblong, 0.4--0.5 mm wide, contiguous; sterile staminate flowers rounded or blunt, 2.2--2.5(4) mm long, (1.9)2.2--3.2 mm wide, 2.2--2.5(4) mm long. INFRUCTESCENCE erect to semi-erect; berries turning orange, obovoid-ellipsoid, apex blunt, 0.8--1.2 mm long, 0.5 mm diam.; mesocarp pale yellow to orange; seeds 3--7 per locule, pale and striate or brown and smooth, strongly sulcate, 1--1.5 mm long, 0.5--0.6 mm diam., enclosed in a translucent envelope. JUVENILE blades narrowly ovate, rounded at base, gradually acuminate at apex, more or less shorter than petiole.

Flowering in Philodendron ferrugineum is recorded by only one collection in August, although post-anthesis collections range from May through September, indicating that the species probably flowers in the rainy season.

Philodendron ferrugineum is currently known only from Panama, from 0 to 770 m elevation in Tropical wet forest and Premontane wet forest life zones.

Philodendron ferrugineum is a member of P. sect. Calostigma subsect. Macrobelium ser. Macrobelium. This species is distinguished by its short internodes, unribbed, deciduous cataphylls, terete to subterete petioles about equaling the blades, large, thick, cordate blades drying reddish brown with the minor veins obscure, close and apparently intermittent with a bumpy look. Also characteristic are the 4-6 inflorescences per axil with the spathe tube green outside and maroon inside.

Philodendron ferrugineum can be confused with P. llanense Croat with which it ocurs in both Bocas del Toro and on the El Llano Cartí Road and Cerro Jefe in Panamá Province and which has similar blades. The latter species differs in having cataphylls becoming fibrous and blades drying greenish brown to somewhat blackened, never conspicuously reddish brown. Philodendron ferrugineum has also been confused with P. grayumii. See the discussion of that species for differences.

A similar, apparently undescribed species from Colombia resembles P. ferrugineum in its large ovate, thick blades (especially in living condition) and in having three to four inflorescences per axil. Examples include Croat 56246, 56708, and Monsalve 911 from Bajo Calima near Buenaventura in Valle Province. These differ, however, in drying grayish brown above and yellowish brown beneath and in having interrupted secretory ducts between the minor veins. In addition, they do not have the undulated and puckered minor veins on drying that are so characteristic of specimens of P. ferrugineum.

A noteworthy collection is McPherson 11479 which is somewhat intermediate between P. ferrugineum and P. grayumii. That collection has blades which dry more reddish brown and have a bumpy surface but also has secretory ducts. It may prove to be a new species.

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Additional specimens examined.

PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Chiriquí Lagoon, on Cayo Agua, 5 m, 9E10'N, 82EW, McPherson 11479 (AAU, MO); Escudo de Veraguas Island, 5 m, 9E05'N, 81E35'W, McPherson 11410 (MO, PMA). Colón: Santa Rita Ridge Road, along trail to Río Indio, 10.6 km from Transisthmian Highway, 380 m, Croat 34349 (MO); along route between Sabanitas and Portobello, 3.9 mi. from highway, 250 m, 9E22'30"N, 79E41'30"W, Croat 75155 (AAU, BR, CM, L, MO, PMA); Río Agustín, Río Guanche, ca. 0 m, 9E30'N, 79E40'W, Churchill et al. 6018 (MO); Río Iguanita, ca. 3 km above bridge on Portobelo road, <100 m, 9E27'N, 79E40'W, Croat 49749 (MO). Panamá: El Llano--Cartí Road, Croat 33145A (MO); Km 7--12 km, 360-400 m, 25098 (MO); 5--6 mi. N of highway, 350--375 m, 34787 (MO); Mile 3.4, 1000 ft., 49098 (MO); Mile 4, 33732 (CAS, F, MO, NY); Km 7--12, 360--400 m, 25173 (MO); Km ca. 17, 400 m, 9E15'N, 78E50'W, Knapp 1376 (MEXU, MO); Cerro Jefe region, 9E15'N, 79E30'W, Croat & Zhu 76216 (CM, MO); 21 km above Pan-American Highway, 600 m, Croat 35886 (MO); 750--800 m, 9E14'N, 79E22'W, Croat 67092A (CM, MO, PMA); 4.6 km beyond peak on road to Altos de Pacora, 26.3 km from Inter-American Highway, 600 m, Croat 35923 (MO); at Altos de Pacora, 750 m, 9E15'N, 79E29'W, Croat & Zhu 76607 (CM, MO); 0.8 mi. beyond turnoff to Altos de Pacora, 770 m, 9E15'N, 79E29'W, Croat & Zhu 76612 (CR, MO, NY). San Blas: Nusagandi, along El Llano--Cartí Rd., 0.7 mi. beyond Cuna Headquarters, located 10.9 mi. N of Pan-American Highway, 450 m, 9E18'N, 79E59'W, Croat 75116 (CM, MO, PMA, TEX); 300--400 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Hamilton & Stockwell 1073 (MO); 1--2 mi N of Nusagandi on road to Cartí, 250--275 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76577, (CAS, L, MO, PMA, US); 76580 (CM, MO, SEL, WIS); Mile 10.1, 300 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 77029 (COL, CR, MEXU, MO); 77030 (MO, PMA).