ContentsPhilodendron copense

Philodendron brunneicaule Croat & Grayum, sp. nov.

TYPE: Panama. Coclé: Alto Calvario, 6 mi. N of El Copé, Atlantic slope along Continental Divide, along trail which heads off old lumber trail and leads down to Las Ricas, Limón, and San Juan, 710--800 m, 8E39'N, 80E36'W, 22 June 1988, Croat 68713 (holotype, MO--3591332). Figures 93--97.

Planta hemiepiphytica; internodia 6--20 cm longa, 1--1.2 cm diam., rubrobrunnea; cataphylla 20--40 cm longa, incostata, decidua; petiolus teres vel C-formatus, leviter subcomplanatus adaxialiter 21--63 cm longus, 4--11 mm diam.; lamina ovata, cordata aut interdum sagittata basi, 25--62 cm longa, 16--52 cm lata; inflorescentia 1; pedunculus 4--20 cm longus, 8--9 mm diam.; spatha 11--21 cm longa; lamina spathae extus cremea, intus viridalba; tubo spathae extus viridi, intus cerasino; pistilla (5)6(7)-locularia; loculi (13)15--18-ovulati; baccae albae.

Hemiepiphytic; stem light reddish brown to rusty red, leaf scars conspicuous, 8 mm long, 12 mm wide; internodes sparsely short dark-lineate, sometimes weakly warty, semiglossy, 6-20 cm long, 1--1.2 cm diam., longer than broad, dark green to olive-green to brown, epidermis loosening and flaking, reddish brown; cataphylls soft, 20--40 cm long, unribbed, sometimes bluntly 1-ribbed, greenish white to white with margins pinkish, drying reddish, deciduous; petioles 21--63 cm long, 4--11 mm diam., erect-spreading to spreading, terete, to C-shaped, somewhat flattened adaxially, medium greem, surface matte, sometimes striate and dark green- to red-lineate; geniculum 3 cm long, 2.5--3 cm diam., thinner and paler than petiole; blades ovate, subcoriaceous, bicolorous, acuminate at apex, cordate or sometimes sagittate at base, 25--62 cm long, 16--52 cm wide (0.6--1.75 times longer than wide), (0.7--1.6 times longer than petiole), upper surface dark green, glossy to semiglossy, lower surface glossy to semiglossy, paler; anterior lobe 23--65 cm long, 19--52 cm wide, (0.88--1.5 times longer than wide); posterior lobes rounded to obtuse, 8--20 cm long, 9--26 cm wide; sinus spathulate to hippocrepiform; midrib flat to sunken, paler than surface above, narrowly convex to round-raised, paler than surface, sometimes tinged maroon below; basal veins 5--9 per side, with 0--2 free to base, (2)3--4 coalesced 1.9--4.5 cm; posterior rib naked for 1--4.5 cm; primary lateral veins 4-6 per side, departing midrib at a 45--55E angle, conspicuously sunken above, narrowly convex and tinged maroon below; interprimary veins weakly raised and darker than surface below; minor veins arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins; tertiary veins visible and sometimes darker than surface below.

INFLORESCENCES erect, 1 per axil; peduncle 4--20 cm long, 8--9 mm diam., medium green, whitish at base, short dark green lineate; spathe glossy, 11--21 cm long, (1.05--2.85 times longer than peduncle), constricted midway above the tube; spathe blade cream outside, greenish white (at anthesis) inside; spathe tube 6.5--9 cm long, green outside, cherry-red inside; spadix 9--17 cm long, broadest above the middle or more or less uniform throughout; pistillate portion cylindrical to obovoid, 3.8--7 cm long, 7--13 mm diam. at apex, 8--14 mm diam. at middle, 10--14 mm wide at base; staminate portion 4.6--17.5 cm long; fertile staminate portion clavate, 9--16 mm diam. at base, 12--20 mm diam. at middle, 7--10 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at middle, broader than the pistillate portion, narrower than the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion as broad as or narrower than the pistillate portion, 0.9--1.6 cm diam.; pistils 1.3--3.2 mm long, 1--1.8 mm diam.; ovary 5(6)7-locular, 0.9--2.1 mm long, 0.9 mm diam., with axile placentation; ovules (13)15--18 per locule, 2-series, 0.1--1.7 mm long, longer than or equal in length to funicle, style 1.2 mm diam., similar to style type B; style apex rounded; stigma subdiscoid, lobed, 1.5 mm diam., 0.3 mm high, covering not quite entire style apex; the androecium truncate, 3--6-sided, 2.2 mm long; thecae oblong, 0.2--0.5 mm wide; sterile staminate flowers blunt with one side scalloped, 1--2.2 mm long, 0.7--1.9 mm wide.

INFRUCTESCENCE with berries white. JUVENILE plants with internodes to 10 cm long, 4--10 mm diam.; cataphylls reddish, persisting at upper nodes, sharply C-shaped in cross-section.

Flowering in Philodendron brunneicaule probably occurs in the early rainy season but a single (post-anthesis) collection was made in January. Most post-flowering collections have been made between April and July, with immature fruits collected in August and October.

Philodendron brunneicaule ranges from Costa Rica to Panama, Colombia (Valle) and Ecuador (Esmeraldas), at 50 to 1300 m elevation in Tropical wet forest and Premontane rain forest.

Philodendron brunneicaule is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Platypodium. The species is characterized by its appressed-climbing habit, long internodes with thin, flaking reddish brown epidermis (hence the name "brunneicaule," from "brunneus" meaning brown, and "caulis" meaning stem), white, unribbed, deciduous cataphylls, somewhat adaxially flattened and red-lineate petioles, ovate blades with reddish brown drying veins, large, solitary inflorescences borne at several of the uppermost internodes, and green spathes colored cherry-red inside on the tube.

Philodendron brunneicaule is probably related to P. ernestii Engl. from Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. That species shares long internodes with flaking brown epidermis and similar, solitary inflorescences. It differs, however, in having stems that are often warty and petioles which are undulate-winged versus more nearly terete for P. brunneicaule. It is noteworthy, however, that a single collection from Amazonas Department of Peru (Vásquez & Apanu 19051, MO) appears to lack a petiolar wing. This may prove to be P. brunneicaule but if so, it would be the first collection from east of the Andes.

In Central America Philodendron brunneicaule is most easily confused with P. copense. See that species for the differences.


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Additional specimens examined.

COSTA RICA. Alajuela: San Ramón-Balsa, ca. 16.7 km N of bridge over Quebrada Volio and ca. 7.5 km N of Río Balsa, 700--800 m, 10E10--15'N, 84E30--35'W, Stevens 13859 (CR, F, MO); 4.6 km N of bridge over Río Balsa, 900--1,000 m, 10E12'N, 84E31'W, Stevens 13735 (MO); 4--7 km N of Balsa, 750 m, 10E13'N, 84E32'W, Liesner & Judziewicz 14667 (CR, MO); 18--19 N of San Ramón, 950 m, 10E10'N, 84E28'W, Hammel et al. 15234 (MO); Reserva Biológica Monteverde Río Peñas Blancas, 900 m, Bello 369 (CR, INB, MO); Río Sarapiquí, crossing to Colonia Virgen del Socorro, 740 m, 10E5.5'N, 81E10.5'W, Grayum & Hammel 5517 (MO); 830 m, 10E16'N, 84E11'W, Croat 68302 (CM, G, M, MO, NY). Heredia: Puerto Viejo--Guápiles, 7 km N of Buenos Aires, <100 m, 10E23'30"N, 83E48'30"W, Croat 68402 (MEXU, MO); La Selva Field Station, Grayum 2790 (F, MO). ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Quinindé, Bilsa Biological Station, Montañas de Mache, 35 km W of Quinindé, 5 km W of Santa Isabela, 400--600 m, 10E21'N, 79E44'W, Pitman & Bass 1085 (MEXU, MO, NY, QCNE). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam area, Fortuna Dam-- Chiriquí Grande, 2.8 road mi. N of Divide, 850--950 m, 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9661 (MO); 1.2 mi. N of Divide, 5.3 mi. N of bridge over Fortuna Dam, 910 m, 8E44'N, 82E17'W, Croat 60468 (AAU, CM, CR, MEXU, MO, PMA, US); gravel road near Continental Divide, 1170 m, 8E44'N, 81E17'W, Croat 66655 (L, MO). Chiriquí: Gualaca--Fortuna Dam, 10.1 mi. NW of Los Planes de Hornito, 1300 m, 82E17'W, 8E45'N, Croat 49836 (COL, K, MO, NY); 9.4 km above El Copé, 750--900 m, Croat 44733 (MO). Coclé: El Copé, Alto Calvario above El Copé, 4.5 mi. N of El Copé, 580--740 m, 8E38'N, 80E36'W, Croat 67532 (AAU, MO, W); 930 m, 49183 (MO, US). Panamá: El Llano--Cartí road, 10 km from Inter-American Highway, near El Llano, 330 m, Croat 33823 (MO); Km 14, 350--500 m, Folsom et al. 1483 (MO); 10.1 mi. above highway, 325--350 m, Croat 67365 (MO). San Blas: El Llano-Cartí Road, km 19, 350 m, 9E19'N, 78E55'W, de Nevers et al. 5599 (B, K, MO, PMA); 1--2 mi. N of Nusagandi, 250--275 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76581 (MO). Veraguas: Santa Fe region, Santa Fe--Río San Luis, past Escuela Agrícola Alto de Piedra, at Río Segundo Brazo, 480 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat 66909 (MO).

COLOMBIA. Valle: Bajo Calima region, Buenaventura--Málaga, Km 28, 50--150 m, 3E59'N, 77E03'W, Bay 240 (CUVC, MO).