Philodendron copense Croat, sp. nov.
TYPE: Panama. Coclé: Alto Calvario, 6 mi. N of El Copé, Atlantic slope, along Continental Divide, along trail which heads off old lumber road and leads down to Las Ricas, Limón, and San Juan, 710--800 m, 8E39'N, 80E36'W, 22 June 1988, Croat 68765 (holotype, MO--3584056--8; isotypes, AAU, B, CAS, CM, COL, CR, K, PMA, US). Figures 109--111, 113--115.
Planta hemiepiphytica; internodia 1.5--2.5 cm longa; 2--7 cm diam.; cataphylla 7--25 cm longa, plerumque 1-costata, in sicco flavibrunnea vel atribrunnea, persistentia semi-intacta; petiolus acute D-formatus, 53--109 cm longus, 8--20 mm diam., epidermide interdum dense brevi-lineata, in sicco atriflavibrunneus; lamina ovato-triangularis, cordata, 56--84.5 cm longa, 22--47 cm lata, in sicco rubrobrunnea; inflorescentia usque 6; pedunculus 7--7.5 cm longus, 7--15 mm diam.; spatha 13--18.5 cm longa, lamina spathae viridi; tubo spathae viridi, extus suffuso purpureoviolaceo, pallidius secus marginem, intus marronino; pistilla 3--5-locularia; loculi 20--22-ovulati; baccae albae.
appressed-climbing, scandent; leaf scars inconspicuous; internodes short, thick,
1.5--2.5 cm long, 2--7 cm diam., broader than long, drying yellow-brown, epidermis
moderately glossy, finely and acutely ridged on younger stems, lighter and more
matte on older stems; roots drying brown, 15--75 cm long, 1--5 mm diam., numerous
per node, epidermis peeling; cataphylls drying chartaceous, 7--25 cm long, usually
1-ribbed, pale red to reddish brown, drying yellowish brown to dark brown, persisting
semi-intact as fibers.
LEAVES erect to erect-spreading; petioles 53--109 cm long, 8--20 mm diam., sharply D-shaped, with broad medial rib adaxially, surface sometimes densely short-lineate, drying smooth and matte to semiglossy, light reddish brown or dark yellow-brown, the epidermis smooth and often flaking; blades ovate-triangular, moderately bicolorous to concolorous, abruptly acuminate at apex (the acumen (1)1.7--2.5 cm long), cordate at base, 56--84.5 cm long, 22-47 cm wide (1.8--2.7 times longer than wide), (0.77--1.1 times longer than petiole), broadest below point of petiole attachment margins broadly undulate, occasionally downturned, upper surface dark green, glossy to semiglossy, drying reddish brown, gray-green or olive-green, matte to weakly semiglossy, lower surface drying semiglossy, yellow-brown to reddish yellow-green; anterior lobe 32--64 cm long, 20--46 cm wide (2.6--3.3 times longer than posterior lobes), broadest at or near base, margins concave; posterior lobes 14.5--21.5 cm long, 22--47 cm wide, broadest at or near base, directed downward and inward to downward and outward, obtuse to semirounded; sinus spathulate to widely hippocrepiform; midrib weakly raised to flat above, thicker than broad, paler than surface, drying concolorous or darker than surface below; basal veins 6--10(15) per side, with 1 free to base, numbers 4--7 coalesced 6--9 cm, prominently raised below; posterior rib naked for 3.5--4 cm; primary lateral veins 11--16 per side, departing midrib at a 55-90E angle, straight to weakly arcuate, drying reddish brown, sunken and paler than surface above, raised, drying slightly darker than surface below; interprimary veins as conspicuous as primary lateral veins; minor veins arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins; lesser veins drying prominulous; "cross-veins" moderately conspicuous on both surfaces. INFLORESCENCES erect, to 6 per axil; peduncle 7--7.5 cm long, 7-15 mm diam., green, coarsely lineate; spathe coriaceous, 13--18.5 cm long, (1.8--2.6 times longer than peduncle), more or less constricted midway on the tube, acute at apex; spathe blade green, short pale-lineate towards base, striate near apex outside, 10.5 cm long, (opening broadly oblong-ovate in face view; spathe tube oblong-ellipsoid, green, tinged purple-violet, paler along margin outside, 8.5--9 cm long, 3.5 cm diam., maroon, conspicuously short-lineate inside; spadix sessile; oblong, 12.5 cm long, constricted at base of fertile staminate portion and tapering at both ends; pistillate portion white, cylindrical to ellipsoid, 6.5--7.5 cm long, 2.2--2.5 cm diam. throughout; staminate portion creamy white, 9 cm long, 9 mm diam. throughout, broadest in lower one-third; fertile portion 9--11 mm diam.; sterile portion narrower than the pistillate portion, 9--15 mm diam.; pistils 1.9--2.3 mm long, 1.9--2.3 mm diam.; ovary 3--5-locular, drying irregularly angled, walls embedded with granular, crystal-like particles, with axile placentation; ovules 20--22 per locule, style similar to style type B; style apex broadly and shallowly concave; stigma button-like, 0.5--0.7 mm long; sterile staminate flowers 2--2.4 mm long, 1--1.5 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE with berries white; seeds 0.8--0.9 mm long, 0.3--0.4 mm diam.
Flowering in Philodendron copense hints at bimodal flowering. A single flowering collection in post-anthesis condition was made in June, immature fruits were collected in January, and mature fruits were collected in December. The mature fruits in December could be the result of a flowering in the early rainy season but immature fruits in January probably were the result of flowering in the late rainy season or early dry season. More flowering specimens are needed for more conclusive statements on phenology.
Philodendron copense is endemic to Panama (but should be expected in eastern Costa Rica) and is known from Bocas del Toro and Coclé (El Copé) at 590 to 930 m elevation in Premontane rain forest.
Philodendron copense is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Platypodium. This species is characterized by its appressed climbing habit, short, thick internodes (2--7 cm diam.), usually one-ribbed cataphylls which persist semi-intact, D-shaped petioles with flaky, yellow to yellow-brown epidermis upon drying, large, ovate-triangular blades drying reddish brown with many conspicuous "cross-veins," and up to six inflorescences per axil with the spathes green or reddish tinged outside and maroon within on the tube.
Philodendron copense is most easily confused with P. brunneicaule, with which it occurs. Though the latter species has blades which dry a similar color, it is distinguished by having long internodes, deciduous cataphylls, petioles which lack the yellow-brown, peeling epidermis, ovate blades which lack the minute "cross-veins" upon drying and stouter inflorescences which are solitary in each axil.
Philodendron copense is also similar to P. chiriquense, another species with an ovate-triangular leaf which dries reddish brown. Philodendron chiriquense differs by having much shorter, thicker internodes, conspicuous reddish brown persistent fibers (rather than semi-intact) and dark brown to blackened striate petioles which lack exfoliating smooth yellow-brown epidermis.
Additional specimens examined.
PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam area, Fortuna--Chiriquí Grande, 4.3 km N of the Continental Divide, 590 m, 8E46'N, 82E14'W, Croat 60159 (CM, DUKE, F, MO, OOM, QCA). Coclé: near Continental Divide, along lumber road, ca. 1.5 mi. N of El Copé, 900 m, Croat 44563 (MO, RSA, U); 44593 (COL, MO); 5.2 mi. above El Copé, 930 m, Croat 49156 (L, MO, SAR, US); 5.6 mi. N of El Copé, 800 m, 8E39'N, 80E36'W, Croat 75064 (M, MEXU, MO, NY, SCZ); 75091 (MO); ca. 5.6 mi. N of El Copé, 800 m, 75091 (MO); 9.4 km above El Copé, 750--900 m, 44729 (B, CR, K, MO, PMA, TEX).