Philodendron findens Croat & Grayum, sp. nov.
TYPE: Panama. Chiriquí: Fortuna Dam area, Fortuna--Chiriquí Grande, 1.8 mi. NW of center of dam, 1080 m, 8E45'N, 82E18'W, 27 June 1994, Croat & Zhu 76502 (holotype, MO--4619581-84; isotypes B, COL, CR, F, K, NY, PMA, US, VEN). Figures 7, 34, 169--171, 175, 177--178.
Planta plerumque hemiepiphytica, varius terrestris; internodia 4--9 cm longa, 2--4 cm diam.; cataphylla usque 35 cm longa, acute 2-costata, persistentia semi-intacta nodis superioribus, fibrosentia, demum decidua; petiolus D-formatus, (25)43--119 cm longus, 0.6--35(45) cm diam., cum ala marginali tenui, erecta; lamina ovato-cordata, (25)40--76 cm longa, (20.5)28--70 cm diam., findens inter nervos laterales I sic videtur fere pinnata, in sicco denigrata; inflorescentia 2; pedunculus 4--12(15) cm longus, 0.3--1.4 cm diam.; spatha 13--22.8 cm longa; lamina spathae extus virenti vel pallide viridi; intus viridialba; tubo spathae extus viridi, intus rubro; pistilla 5--6-locularia; loculi 15--20(22)-ovulati.
Usually hemiepiphytic, rarely terrestrial on steep banks; stem appressed-climbing, medium green, glossy, sap watery, spicy-scented, leaf scars conspicuous, 3.5--4 cm long, 5 cm wide; internodes short, thick, semiglossy, 4--9 cm long, 2--4 cm diam., longer than broad, dark olive-green, epidermis cracking, yellowish, fissured longitudinally and transversely; roots moderately few per node, drying dark brown, semiglossy, acutely ridged; cataphylls thin, fleshy, somewhat spongy, to 35 cm long, sharply 2-ribbed (ribs 2--3 mm high), D-shaped, thicker than broad, medium green, light or pale yellow-green towards margins, semiglossy, broadly sulcate abaxially, persisting semi-intact at upper nodes, becoming fibrous and eventually deciduous, blunt to acute at apex, margins weakly raised adaxially; petioles (25)43--119 cm long, 0.6--35(45) cm diam., sharply D-shaped, with a thin, erect marginal wing, the wing undulate toward apex, surface densely light striate near base; blades large ovate-cordate, subcoriaceous, strongly bicolorous, short acuminate at apex, cordate at base, (25)40--76 cm long, (20.5)28--70 cm wide (1.1--1.5 times longer than wide), (0.6--1.1 times longer than petiole), margins usually promptly splitting into segments by dividing between the primary lateral veins, making blades appear almost pinnate, upper surface dark green, semiglossy, drying blackened to dark reddish brown, nearly matte, lower surface semiglossy to matte, paler; anterior lobe 18--57.5 cm long, 15.5--55(79) cm wide (2.2--3.2 times longer than posterior lobes); posterior lobes (7.2)11.5--32 cm long, 8.6--28(37.5) cm wide, obtuse to rounded; sinus more or less parabolic; midrib weakly to deeply sunken, paler than surface above, convex, weakly striate, slightly paler than surface below; basal veins 5--12 per side, with 0--1(2-3) free to base, in part coalesced 5--10 cm; posterior rib naked for 1--7 cm; primary lateral veins 5--7 per side, departing midrib at a 40--50E angle, deeply sunken and paler than surface above, convex, usually concolorous below; interprimary veins visible, few near apex above and below; tertiary veins visible, darker than surface below; minor veins weakly raised and darker than surface, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins; secretory canals obscurely visible.
INFLORESCENCES erect, 2 per axil; peduncle 4--12(15) cm long, 0.3--1.4 cm diam., pale to medium green, prominently, densely white-streaked; spathe 13--22.8 cm long, (1.4--2.4 times longer than peduncle), constricted midway slightly above the tube; spathe blade medium to pale green outside, greenish white inside; spathe tube oblong-ellipsoid, green, densely and minutely lineate-speckled outside, 7--9 cm long, red (B & K red-purple 4/10, 2/10) inside, spadix sessile, tapered, 13--23 cm long, broadest just below the middle; pistillate portion gray-white, tapered toward the apex, slightly curved, 4--8.5 cm long, 1.4--2.1 cm diam. at apex, 1.6 cm diam. at middle, 1.9 cm wide at base; staminate portion 14.3--17.5 cm long; fertile staminate portion creamy white, tapered, 1.8--2 cm diam. at base, 1.3 cm diam. at middle, 9 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at base, narrower than the pistillate portion, narrower than the sterile portion; sterile staminate portion broader than the pistillate portion, 1.6 cm diam.; pistils (3)7.7--8.4 mm long, 2--2.5 mm diam.; ovary 5--6-locular, locules (1.6)5.8--6.1 mm long, with axile placentation; ovules 15--20(22) per locule, 2-seriate, 0.3--0.5 mm long, longer than funicle, style similar to style type B; style apex rounded; stigma subdiscoid to discoid, more or less lobed, 1.2--2 mm diam., 0.1--0.5 mm high, covering entire style apex; the androecium truncate, 4--6-sided; thecae oblong, 0.5 mm wide, contiguous; sterile staminate flowers blunt, 3.1 mm long, 1.2 mm wide.
INFRUCTESCENCE 12 cm long, 3.7 cm diam., 19.5 cm long; stipe 4.5 cm diam.; berries irregularly quadrangular to bluntly 4--5-sided, with a kiwi fruit-scent, 3.5--4.2 mm diam.; seeds 1--2 per locule, ca. 17 per berry, somewhat flattened, 1.5--2.2 mm long, 0.3--0.4 mm diam., translucent and with fine striations. JUVENILE stems dark green to yellow-brown, semi-glossy to glossy, 2.4 cm long, 5 mm diam.; blades thin, entire. PRE-ADULT petioles broadly convex adaxially, the margins spreading winged, incurled, erect; blades moderately bicolorous.
Flowering in Philodendron findens occurs in May and July, but post-anthesis and immature fruiting collections from March through November (except October) suggest a broader flowering period, with plants flowering earlier in the dry season or much later in the rainy season.
Philodendron findens ranges from Costa Rica to Panama on the Atlantic slope, from near sea level to 1400 m elevation in mostly Tropical wet forest and Premontane rain forest but also in Premontane wet forest. It probably also occurs in Colombia.
Philodendron findens is a member of P. sect. Philodendron subsect. Platypodium. This species is characterized by its generally appressed-climbing habit and short, thick internodes with sharply two-ribbed cataphylls which are finally fibrous and persistent, D-shaped petioles with marginal wings adaxially, and especially by its usually black-drying, large, ovate-cordate, leaf blades which promptly shred into segments, making the blade appear almost pinnate (hence the name "findens", meaning "tearing or splitting"). Also characteristic are the paired, green inflorescences with the spathe tube red within.
Philodendron findens can be confused with P. pterotum, which has similarly shaped blades and D-shaped petioles with narrowly winged margings. That species differs, however, in having blades drying yellow-green, and major veins drying paler than the surface below (in contrast to blackened and darker than the surface in P. findens) and do not rip into segments, and also by occurring more commonly in Tropical moist forest and at elevations of usually less than 400 meters. In addition, the spathe tube in P. pterotum is purplish on the outside, versus solid green (sometimes reddish) for P. findens.
Cuatrecasas 14948, from Valle Department along Río Digua at Piedra de Moler at 900-1180 m, is apparently this species. It differs in no significiant way but there are no field notes and the petiole is improperly preserved and its cross-sectional shape cannot be confirmed.
Additional specimens examined.
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: ca. 7.5 km N of bridge over Río Balsa, 700--800 m, 10E10--15'N, 84E30--35'W, Stevens 13892 (MO), ca. 5.7 km N of bridge over Quebrada Volio, 1100--1,150 m, 10E08'N, 84E29'W, Stevens 14115 (MO); San Ramón Forest Reserve, ca. 10 km W of Laguitos, along Río San Lorencito, 850--1,100 m, 10E18'N, 84E34'W, Hammel et al. 15283 (MO); ca. 1.3 mi. N of Angeles Norte, 1200 m, Croat 46876 (MEXU, MO); 800--1000 m, Nilsson 458 (CR); Reserva Biológica Monteverde, 950 m, 10E18'N, 84E45'W, Bello & Méndez 2667 (MO); 2668 (CR); 820 m, 10E19'N, 84E43'W, Bello & Eyol 2682 (INB, MO). Cartago: Moravia-Quebrada Platanillo, Moravia, 3--5 km from Finca Racine, 1,200--1300 m, Croat 36627 (MO); Río Navarro, El Muñeco, 1400--1500 m, Standley & Torres 51355 (US). Heredia: 3 mi. S of Cariblanco, 760 m, Croat 35796 (MO); 35813 (MO); 4 mi. N of Vara Blanca, 1350 m, Croat 35606 (MO); Río Frío de Sarapiquí, Río Sucio--Finca Zona Ocho, 110 m, 10E18'N, 83E52.5'W, Grayum & Hammel 5565 (CR, L, MO); Río Frío, W of Finca Zona Nueve, ca. 110 m, 10E18'N, 83E53'W, Grayum 3561 (K, M, MO, RSA). Limón: Fila Lleskila Talamanca, 1160 m, Gómez et al. 23061 (CM, K, MO). San José. Braulio Carrillo National Park, 600-700 m, Croat 78751 (CM, CR, INB, M, MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Fortuna Dam area, Chiriquí Grande--Fortuna, 470 m, 8E50'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 11646 (MO); ca. 0 m, 8E55'N, 82E09'W, Croat 66811 (MO); Almirante--Ojo de Agua, 3--6 km W of Almirante, 30--200 m, Croat 38218 (BR, CAS, F, K, MO, PMA, US); 2.8 mi. N of Divide, 850--950 m, 8E45'N, 82E15'W, McPherson 9674 (MO, NY). Chiriquí: Gualaca--Chiriquí Grande, 1.4 mi. W of Centro de Operaciones, trail to Río Hornito, 1010--1130 m, 8E44'N, 82E14'30"W, Croat 67919 (B, F, K, M, MO); Croat & Zhu 76293B (MO); Río Chiriquí, near La Sierpe, ca. 0.5 km N of river, IRHE Fortuna Hydroelectric Project, 1000--1100 m, 8E46'N, 82E12'W, Knapp 5052 (MO). Coclé: El Valle de Antón region, at La Mesa, 860--900 m, Croat 37410 (MO); 775 m, 8E36'N, 80E07'W, 74795 (MO); 800--900 m, 8E38'N, 80E09'W, 67153 (MO); Luteyn & Kennedy 1616 (MO); El Copé region, N of El Copé, 1200--1300 m, Sytsma & Andersson 4622 (MO). Colón: 10 mi. SW of Portobelo, 2--4 mi. from coast, 10--200 m, Liesner 1115 (F, MO, NY, US); Río Guanche, ca. 2 km E of bridge on main Puerto Pilón--Portobelo Road, 100 m, ca. 9E30'N, 79E39'W, Croat 75175 (B, CAS, COL, F, K, MO, NY, PMA, US). Darién: along headwater of Río Tuquesa, ca. 2 km air distance from Continental Divide, Tyler Kittredge gold mine, Croat 27148 (MO). Veraguas: Santa Fe region, Santa Fe--Río San Luis, beyond Escuela Agrícola Alto de Piedra, 5.9 mi. N of school, 480 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat 66937 (MO, PMA, US); trail up Cerro Tute, 1050--1150 m, Croat 48899 (CM, MO); Escuela Agrícola Alto de Piedra--Río San Luis, vic. of Santa Fe, along Río Primero Brazo, on Atlantic Coast, 490 m, 8E33'N, 81E08'W, Croat 66879A (MO); Escuela Agrícola Alto Piedra--Calovébora, 15.6 km NW of Santa Fe, along trail to Santa Fe, E of Río Dos Bocas, 450--550 m, Croat 27653 (MO); beyond Tres Bravos River, 11 km beyond Santa Fe, 650 m, Croat 25625 (MO).
COLOMBIA. Valle: Cordillera Occidental, Río Digua, Piedra de Moler, 900-1180 m, Cuatrecasas 14948 (F).