ContentsPhilodendron radiatum var. pseudoradiatumPhilodendron warszewiczii

Philodendron radiatum Schott var. radiatum

Philodendron augustinum K. Koch, in A. Braun et al., Append. sp. Hort. berol. 1853: 4. 1853--1854. TYPE: Central America, Without exact locality (holotype, B?; lost). Schott ic. 2605. [Neotype here designated].

Philodendron polytomum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 164. 1859. TYPE: Mexico. Veracruz: Colipa, Hac. de Sta. Bárbara, Liebmann s.n. (holotype C; isotype, K, non vidi).

Philodendron impolitum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 291. 1860. TYPE: Costa Rica, Wendland s.n. (non vidi).

Internodes 3--7 cm long, 3--8 cm diam.; cataphylls blunting to sharply 2-ribbed; petioles 33--108 cm long; blades deeply lobed, the divisions near the middle of the blade extendig more than 3/4 the way to the midrib, 21--101 cm long, 25--90 cm wide; posterior lobes (8)12.5--25 cm long, (9)16--18 cm wide; primary lateral veins 3--8 cm long; basal veins 4(5) per side, (1)2--4 coalesced to 3 cm long, naked 1--6 cm. INFLORESCENCES 1--3(4) per axil; spathe 11--25 cm long; spadix 10--13 cm long; pistillate portion 3.5--5.2 cm long; pistils (3)4--5(8) mm long; ovaries with axile placentation; style similar to style type B (rarely C).

Flowering in Philodendron radiatum var. radiatum is documented by few flowering collections made in February, August, and September. Post-anthesis collections are common, from every month of the year and there are no clearly marked differences in the phenology of this species in different parts of Central America. Material was seen at various stages of development from all parts of Central America in about equal numbers. Mature fruits are known only from February and May.

Philodendron radiatum var. radiatum is characterized by its moderately thick, mostly short internodes, sharply two-ribbed, deciduous cataphylls, terete petioles, and especially by its deeply incised-lobate leaf blades with mostly linear to linear-lanceolate segments, themselves often lobate toward the base of the blades.

Philodendron radiatum var. radiatum might be confused with P. dressleri and P. warszewiczii, Central American species with incised-lobate leaf blades. Philodendron dressleri differs in having thicker leaf blades, more succulent stems with shorter internodes, and especially by having blades which are incised lobate only about midway to the midrib. In addition, P. dressleri has one inflorescence per axil and 3--4 locules per ovary, while P. radiatum has 1--3(4) inflorescences per axil and 7--8 locules per ovary. Philodendron warszewiczii differs by having thinner blades, drying papyraceous with the minor veins distinctly visible. In addition, the lateral leaf blade segments usually have three or more lobes per side. Philodendron radiatum, in contrast, has blades drying subcoriaceous with the minor veins rather indistinct and with the lateral leaf blade segments usually 1-2-lobed per side.

Philodendron radiatum var. radiatum has a unique attractant whose odor profile is made up almost entirely of compounds unique to it and is pollinated by a new species of Cyclocephala (Schatz, 1990).

Additional specimens examined for P. var. radiatum.

BELIZE. Honey Camp, Lundell s.n. (US); Maskall, Gentle 1141 (MICH, NY); Gracie Rock, 1.5--4 mi. S of Mile 22 on Western Highway, 100 m, Liesner & Dwyer 1460 (MO); Crooked Tree Village, 60 m, 17E47'N, 88E32'W, Davidse & Brant 33146 (MO). Cayo: Roaring Creek, Dwyer 12677 (MO); 1.5 mi. W of Augustine, Río Frío, ca. 450 m, Sutton et al. 211 (BM); Hummingbird Highway, Mile 20, Dwyer & Liesner 12130 (MO); Chiquibul National Park, Caracol Archaeological Reserve, 550 m, 16E45'N, 89E07'W, Ingram & Ferrell-Ingram 1935 (MO); Río Ma Cal, San Luis--Cuevas, 1050 ft., Croat 23534 (MO); Vaca, Gentle 2552 (MICH). Corozal: edge of New River, Pueblo Nuevo, Gentle 473 (CM, MICH); Cerro Maya Ruins, Lowry's Bright, Crane 348 (LL); Gentle 617 (MICH). Orange Walk: road to Trinidad, ca. 5 km N of August Pine Ridge, 100 m, 18EN, 88E42'W, 100 m, Davidse & Brant 32791 (MO); Pulltrouser Swamp, Lincoln 20 (MO). Toledo: Punta Gorda highway, 1 mi. E of junction to San Antonio, ca. 100 ft., Croat 24512 (MO); Solomon Camp, vic. of Richardson Creek and Bladen Branch junction, Maya Mountains foothills, 80--420 m, 16E32--33'N, 88E45--46'W, Davidse & Brant 32198 (MO); Columbia Forest Station Area, 1.5 mi. S of Mayan Village of San José, Croat 24335 (MO); Holst 4303 (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Cañas--Upala, 10 km N of Bijagua, 200 m, Croat 36488 (MO). Heredia: La Selva Field Station, Grayum 2534A (DUKE); 100 m, 3022 (DUKE); Jacobs 2290 (DUKE); 2707 (MO); 10E26'N, 84EW, Burger & Stolze 5921 (BM, CR, US); 100 m, 10E26'N, 84E01'W, Gentry & Ortiz 78615 (MO); Río Sucio, near Puerto Viejo, 20 m, Croat 35680 (MO); Puerto Viejo--Guápiles, 7 km N of Buenos Aires, 10E23'30"N, 83E48'30"W, Croat 68386 (MO); Río Sarapiquí, S of La Virgen, 200 m, Lent 33 (MO); La Tirimbina, 220 m, Hunter 821 (WIS). Limón: Barra del Colorado, N side, 0--2 m, 10E47'N, 83E35'W, Stevens 24133 (CR, MO); Barra del Colorado--Río San Juan, Laguna de Atrás, 5 m, 10E48-52'N, 83E38'W, Davidse & Herrera 31512 (CR, MO); Cerro Coronel, E of Laguna Danto, 20--170 m, 10E41'N, 83E38'W, Stevens 23845 (CR, MO); Parque Nacional Tortuguero, Estación Agua Fría, 2 m, Robles 1398 (CR, MO); 40 m, 10E26'N, 83E35'W, 1730 (CR, MO); 600 m S, 4 m, 10E32'N, 83E30'W, 1846 (CR, MO); Cahuita, Poveda 1166 (CR, MO); Cahuita--Limón, 0--10 m, 9E44'N, 83E20'W, Baker & Burger 157 (CR, NY); Hacienda Tapezco--Hacienda La Suerte, 29 air km W of Tortuguero, 40 m, 10E30'N, 83E47'W, Davidson & Donahue 8729 (MO, RSA); 8437 (RSA); Río Colorado, 3.5 airline km S of Islas Buena Vista, 10--120 m, 10E39'N, 83E40'40"W, Davidse & Herrera 31268 (MO); Barra del Colorado, 1--5 m, 10E47'40"N, 83E25'30"W, Davidse & Herrera 30882 (MO); Río Pacuare, 50--100 m, 10E15'N, 83E29'W, Burger & Liesner 6894 (MO); 7 km SE of Bribrí, 100--250 m, Gomez 20315 (MO); 1 mi. SW of Bribrí, <50 m, Croat 43228 (CR, MO); vic. of Moin, 0 m, 10EN, 83E04'W, Croat 61207 (MO); Bahía de Portete Parque Nacional, 0--10 m, 10EN, 83E05'W, Thompson & Rawlins 1175 (CM); Río Reventazón, Finca Montecristo, below Cairo, 25 m, Standley & Valerio 48969 (US). EL SALVADOR. La Cebadilla, Calderón 1245 (US). San Salvador: Tonacatepeque vicinity, Standley 19538 (GH, NY, US); Calderón 201 (GH, NY, US). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Tuerckheim 8330 (US); eastern portions of Verapaz and Chiquimula, Watson 194 (GH); near Finca Sepacuite, Cook & Griggs 724 (US); Cubilquitz, 350 m, Tuerckheim 8330 (US); Guatemala--El Estor, 5 mi. W of Tucurú, 600 m, Croat 41509 (MO); Tucurú--El Estor, Finca Argentina, above Papalha, 15 mi. W of Telemán, 550--650 m, Croat 41550 (MO); ca. 6 km NE of Panzós, 500 m, Croat 41616 (MO). Izabal: Quiriguá vicinity, 75--225 m, Standley 23939 (US); ca. 7 mi. S of Puerto Barrios, 50 m, Croat 41803 (MO); Río Frío, Cerro San Gil, 75--150 m, Steyermark 41534 (MO, NY); W of El Estor and abandoned nickel mine, 1--10 m, Stevens & Martínez 25283 (MO). Petén: La Libertad, Lundell 2645 (MICH, NY); El Paso, Lundell 1571 (MICH); Uaxactun, Bartlett 12702 (MICH); Tikal National Park, Contreras 105 (LL). Quezaltenango: along CA-2, 4 mi. NW of turnoff to Coloba, Croat 32767 (MO); Coatepeque--Retalhuleu, Hwy. CA-2, 3 mi. S of turnoff to Colomba, 600 m, Croat & Hannon 63414 (MO, US). Sacatepéquez: Volcán Santa Clara, 1250--2650 m, Steyermark 46621 (MO). HONDURAS. Puerte Sierra, Wilson 321 (NY). Atlántida: Lancetilla Valley, near Tela, Standley 52945 (US); 53668 (US); 53985 (US); ca. 10 mi. SE of Tela, Río Lancetilla, 10--150 m, Croat 42631 (MO); Río Cangrejal, 5 km inland from La Ceiba, Blackmore & Chorley 4155 (BM, MO, UNAH); Río Sambo, Tocoa--La Cieba, 11.3 mi. from Río Cangreja Bridge at La Ceiba, 30 m, 15E47'N, 86E30'W, Croat & Hannon 64581 (BM, MO); Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, ca. 10 km SW of La Ceiba, 160 m, 15E42'N, 86E51'W, Evans 1675 (MO). Colón: Río Negro, Trujillo, Clewell et al. 4345 (MO). Copán: ca. 4 mi. E of Copán, 800 m, Croat 42502 (MO); 10 mi. W of Copán, road to La Entrada, 700 m, Croat 42516 (MO). Cortés: Lago Yojoa, Punta del Cacao, 650 m, 14E05'30"N, 87E58'W, MacDougal et al. 3079 (MO); Ocote Arrancado, 50 km N Lago de Yojoa, Nelson et al. 5868 (MO, VBD); Puerto Cortes--Guatamalan border, 2--3 mi. SW of Omoa, Croat 42558 (MO); N of Lago de Yojoa, along old Highway 1, ca. 2-6 mi. from junction with new Highway 1, SW of Santa Cruz de Yojoa, 600 m, Croat 42745 (MO). Gracias a Díos: Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, Las Marías (Batil Tuk), 30 m, Knees et al. 2825 (BM). Morazán: El Zamorano, 800 m, Molina 34353 (MO). Olancho: El Jocomido--Cerro El Mulato, Blackmore & Heath 1686 (BM, MO); Gualaco--San Esteban, Río Olancho, 7.4 mi. NE of San Esteban, 540 m, 15E20'N, 85E42'W, Croat 64365 (K, MO, NY). Santa Bárbara: Lago Yojoa, Punta Gorda, 650 m, 14E52'N, 88EW, MacDougal et al. 3126 (MEXU, MO, NY); 630 m, 14E53'N, 88EW, Liesner 26769 (MO); 700 m, Croat 42752 (MO); El Novillo, 640 m, 14E53'N, 88E00'30"W, Evans 1044 (MO). Yoro: Aguán River Valley, Coyoles, Yuncker et al. 8624 (GH, MO, NY, UC, US). MEXICO. Location unspecified, Reko 3690 (US); Sandoval 14 (US). Campeche: Mpio. Hopechén, Rancho El Carmen, 33-35 km S of Xmaben on road from Hopelchén to Xpujil, near Xpanzil, 200 m, 18E58'N, 89E20'W, Sanders et al. 9735 (MO); Huatusco, Sandaval 14 (US); Patria, Engler 197 (BM, GH); Santa Leonor, E of Río San Pedro, Barlow 16/8 (BH). Chiapas: San Manuel, ca. 15 km above Palenque, on road to Ocosingo, ca. 500 m, Madison 7312 (SEL); Escuintla--El Triunfo, 1 mi. N of Escuintla, 100 m, Croat 43811 (MEXU, MO); Esperanza--Escuintla, Matuda 16662 (F, MEXU); 17788 (NY); 150 m, 18045 (MEXU); Tapachula--Nueva Alemán, 4 mi. N of Tapachula, 250 m, Croat 43794 (MO); Escuintla--El Triunfo, ca. 8.5 mi. NE of Escuintla, 250 m, Croat 43820 (MO); Escuintla--Monte Ovando, 2.8 km NW of Turquiz, ca. 100 m, Croat 47511 (MO); Acacoyagua, Cerro Ovando, 800--900 m, Croat 78548 (CHIP, MO); Huixtla--Motozintla de Mendoza, 4.8 km N of Huixtla, ca. 200 m, Croat 47523 (MO); 2 mi. S of Chiapas border, along Hwy. 195, 8 mi. N of Pichucalco, 80 m, Croat 40088 (MO); 5 mi. SE of Palenque, on road to Ocosingo, 200 m, Croat 40135 (MO); Palenque--Bonampak, 89-90 mi. SW of Palenque, 350--370 m, Croat 40217 (MO); 73 mi. SE of Palenque, 460 m, Croat 40267 (MO); Ocozocoautla--Apitpac, 20 mi. N of Ocozocoautla, 700 m, Croat 40650 (MO); 5 mi. N of Ocozocoautla, 1000 m, Croat 40543 (MO); Motozintla de Mendoza--Huixtla, 15 mi. S of Motozintla de Mendoza, 900 m, Croat 40765 (MO); Mpio. Ixtacomitan, 7 km SW of Ixtacomitan, 250 m, Breedlove 45915 (MO); Mpio. Mapastepec, Sierra de Soconusco, new unfinished road to Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 200 m, 15E31'N, 92E50'W, Croat 63382 (B, K, MO, NY, US); Mpio. Ocosingo, Lacanja--Chanzayab, Palenque--Boca Lacantum, 340 m, Martínez 15071 (MO); Laguna Ocotalito, 12 km N of Monte Líbano, trail to Chancala, 980 m, Martínez 17029 (MO); Bonampak, 520 m, Breedlove & Almeda 58051 (MO); Mpio. Palenque, 8--9 km S of Palenque, 300 m, Breedlove & Strother 46895 (CAS); 25 km S of Palenque, 300 m, Breedlove & Almeda 57318 (CAS); Mpio. Tzimol, 15 km S of Comitán, 1200 m, Breedlove 53732 (CAS). Oaxaca: Williams 9173 (US); 14 mi. S of Tuxtepec, Moore & Bunting 8904 (BH, MO); 8910 (BH); Tuxtepec--Oaxaca, 0.5 mi. S of Valle Nacional, Highway 175, 120 m, Croat 39700 (MO); 3 km S of Hidroeléctrica Temascal, 50 m, Cortés et al. 875 (MO); Uxpanapa region, Esmeralda--Río Verde, 1.1 mi. S of Esmeralda, 100 m, 17E10'N, 94E45'W, Croat & Hannon 63234 (MO); Jalpan, 2--3 km E of La Baquilla, Río Santa María, 270--320 m, Carranza & Zamudio 4548 (MO); ca. 1.5 km E of La Boquilla, 270--320 m, Carranza & Díaz 4721 (MO). San Luis Potosí: Highway 85, 6 mi. NW of Tamazunchale, 250 m, Croat 39262 (MO); Tamazunchale, Edwards 626 (DS, MO). Tabasco: 30 mi. E of Minatitlán, Barkley & Carr 36221 (GH); Alemán, 10 mi. NW of Cardenas, Barlow 26/25 (BH); Mpio. Cárdenas, vic. Cárdenas, Cowan 2021 (MO); Mpio. Huimanguillo, km 12.6 de la desviación de Huimanguillo, Cowan & Magaña 3255 (CAS, NY). Veracruz: Huatusco--Puente Nacional, El Mirador, 21 km E of Huatusco, ca. 1200 m, Croat 43974 (MO); Moore & Bunting 8855 (BH); Playa Escondida, N of Sontecomapan, along Caribbean cliffs, 10--60 m, Gentry et al. 32610 (MO); Córdoba--Veracruz, San José de Gracia, ca. 750 m, Croat 39612 (MO); Highway 180, 6 mi. E of Coatzacoalcos, Croat 40064 (MO); NW of Misantla, 2.4 mi. on road to Martínez de la Torre, ca. 320 m, Moore & Bunting 8946 (BH); Dtto. Papantla, Kelly 126 (BH); Mpio. Coatepec, 5 km by air SE of Tuzamapan, 680 m, 19E21'N, 96E50'W, Nee & Taylor 26026 (NY); Mpio. Cosamaloapan, 10 km by air NW of Tres Valles, 25 m, 18E17'N, 96E13'W, Nee & Taylor 29306 (NY); Mpio. Hidalgotitlán, 1 km SE of Agustín Melgar, 100 m, 17E15'N, 94E33'W, Nee 29765 (NY); Mpio. Naolinco, 2 km from Concha al Espinal, 900 m, Ortega 630 (MO). Yucatán: Izamal, 20E56'N, 89E01'W, Gaumer 23200 (GH, NY, US); 1413 (GH, MO); Uayma, Schott 766 (BM). NICARAGUA. Boaco: Boaco-Camoapa, N slope of Cerro Mombachito, 500--900 m, ca. 12E24--25'N, 85E32--33'W, Stevens & Grijalva 14699 (MO); Hwy. 33, vic. Río Quilan bridge, ca. 300--310 m, 12E35'N, 85E32'W, Stevens 9330 (BM, MO). Chontales: Juigalpa--La Libertad, ca. 17.4 km NE of Río Mayales, at ford of Río El Bizcocho, 350--400 m, ca. 12E12'N, 85E17'W, Stevens 4093 (BM, MO); 4095 (BM, MO); ca. 2.8 km above Cuapa, 400--500 m, ca. 12E17'N, 85E23'W, Stevens 3671 (MO, PMA). Estelí: km 167 on Hwy. 1, ca. 15.8 km N of entrance to Estelí, 825--850 m, ca. 13E15'N, 86E22'W, Stevens 5788 (MO). Jinotega: Río Bocay, Salto Acatulu, ca. 130 m, 14E13'N, 85E10'W, Stevens et al. 16749 (MO). Madriz: Cerro Quisuca, 1100--1250 m, ca. 13E30'N, 86E31'W, Stevens & Grijalva 16063 (MBM, MO). Managua: Ciudad Managua, Reparto Bolonia, Guzmán et al. 1071 (MO). Nueva Segovia: Río San Fernando Valley, ca. 5.2 km N of San Fernando, 13E2--3'N, 86E19--20'W, Stevens 3245 (BM, MO). Río San Juan. Río Santa Cruz-Caño Santa Crucita, La Palma, 40--60 m, 11E2--4'N, 84E24--26'W, Stevens 23427 (MO); Caño Chontaleño, 20 km NE of El Castillo, 200 m, Neill & Vincelli 3620 (MO). Zelaya: La Barra de Punta Gorda, 0--2 m, 11E30'N, 83E46'W, Moreno 13225 (MO); Caño Montecristo, mouth of Caño El Consuelo, ca. 10 m, 11E35'N, 83E51'W, Moreno 15027 (MO); 6.5 km al SE de Waslala, 520--560 m, 13E16'N, 85E24'W, Moreno 17288 (MO); Puerto Cabezas--Rosita, ca. km 47, ca. 5.3 km W of Río Wawa Ferry, <10 m, 14E06'N, 83E35'W, Stevens 8568 (MO); along road to Panua, 2.3--3.1 km NW of Panua, 4.2--5 km from main road, 30--40 m, 14E18--19'N, 83E41--42'W, Stevens 7796 (MO); Puerto Cabezas--Río Wawa, Ibo Tingni, drainage of Caño Sung Sung, <10 m, 14E9--11'N, 83E29--31'W, Stevens 10658-a (MO); Auastara vicinity, <10 m, ca. 14E19'N, 83E12--13'W, Stevens 10441 (MO); SW of Bluefields, 10--40 m, 12EN, 83E46'W, Stevens 19781 (MO); 6.3 km S of bridge at Colonia Yolania, on road to Colonia Manantiales of Nueva Guinea, 200--300 m, Vincelli 249 (MO); 40--45 km SW of Waspam, 10--100 m, Atwood 3717 (MO); Cerro Livico, 7 km NE of Siuna, 500 m, Neill 3634 (BM, MO); Cerro Waylawás, ca. 80 m, 13E39'N, 84E49'W, Pipoly 4370 (MO); ca. 100--200 m, 13E38--39'N, 84E48--49'W, 4239 (MO); 4162 (MO); ca. 100--268 m, ca. 13E39'N, 84E48--49'W, Stevens 7378 (MO); Caño Costa Riquita, ca. 1.8 km SW of Colonia Naciones Unidas, 150--180 m, ca. 11E43'N, 84E18'W, Stevens 5081 (MO); Cerro Saslaya--San José del Hormiguero, between Caño Sucio and Loma Mollejones, ca. 300--450 m, 13E45'N, 84E58--59'W, Stevens 7011 (MO); Cayo Palmeta, 0--10 m, 11E34'N, 83E39'W, Stevens 20765 (MO); San Juan del Norte, Smith 22 (MO); Seymour 5906 (MO); Cerro Baká, ca. 6.5 km E of Río Coperna, 200--320 m, 13E40'N, 84E30'W, Pipoly 4846 (MO); Estación Experimental El Recreo, W de Cerro La Ceiba, 12E10'N, 84E18'W, Sandino 1656 (MO); Monkey Point, Caño El Pato, ca. 10 m, 11E35'N, 83E42"W, Moreno 12399 (MEXU, MO); 1--5 m, 11E36'N, 83E40'W, 12318 (MO); 1--5 m, 11E36'N, 83E38'W, Moreno & Sandino 12007 (MO); 0-20 m, 11E35'N, 83E39'W, Stevens 20031 (MO); 1 km S of Monkey Point, ca. 5 m, 83E39'N, 11E35'W, Moreno & Sandino 12541 (MO); Río Likas, near Silima Lila, 50 m, ca. 14E30'N, 83E50'W, Pipoly 4097 (MO); Río Prinzapolka, 0.3--1.9 km N of Limbaika, 8--10 m, ca. 13E29'N, 84E13'W, Stevens 8264 (MO); ca. 2 km S of Waní, ca. 0--100 m, ca. 13E42'N, 84E50'W, Pipoly 4729 (MO); Río Punta Gorda, Atlanta, 10 m, 11E33'N, 84E02'W, Moreno & Sandino 12808 (MO); Atlanta, 2 km S of Carolina del Sur, ca. 60 m, 11E32'N, 84E01'W, Moreno & Sandino 12890A (MO); Río Rama, Caño Zamora, ca. 10 m, 11E57'N, 84E16'W, Stevens 8849 (MO); Río Sucio, E of Bonanza, ca. 140 m, 14E01'N, 84E34'W, Stevens 12345 (MO); Río Waspuk, 75--100 m, 14E15'N, 84E36'W, Stevens 13091 (MO). PANAMA. Ahorca Lagarto, Cowell 262 (NY). Bocas del Toro: Gualaca--Chiriquí Grande, 4.2 mi. S of Chiriquí Grande, 8E55'N, 82E09'W, Croat 66816 (AAU, CM, F, MO); Changuinola--Almirante Railroad, Milla 7.5, 100 m, Croat & Porter 16433 (MO); Croat 38122 (MO); Chiriquí Lagoon, Water Valley, von Wedel 989 (GH, MO); Isla Colón, Swan Key, 2 km N, Tyson & Loftin 6307 (FSU, MO); Río Cricamola, Finca St. Louis--Konkintoë, Woodson et al. 1901 (GH, MO, NY); Río Changuinola, ca. 1 km above mouth of Río Teribe, <100 m, 9E21'40"N, 82E31'40"W, Croat & Zhu 76446 (CM, MO). Canal Area: Hayes 805 (NY); Gorgona--Gatún, 10--15 m, Pittier 2300 (US); Gatún, Standley 27023 (US); Ft. Sherman, Standley 30992 (US); Frijoles, Standley 27467 (US); Ft. Randolph, Standley 28626 (US); 66--70 m, Dodge et. al 16870 (MO, U, UC); near Gatún, Standley 27203 (US); vic. Summit Garden, Tyson & Lazor 6121 (FSU, RSA); Barro Colorado Island, Gatún Lake, Standley 31328 (US); 40818 (US); Kenoyer 178a (US); Elmore X14 (MICH, RSA, US); Croat 7178 (MO); 79E49'46"W, 9E09'56"N, 6124 (MO, NY, SCZ); 6060 (MO); 4655 (MO, SCZ); Aviles 44 (MO); Shattuck 266 (GH, MO); Navy Pipeline Road, Smith & Smith 3313 (US); 0.25 km NW of Río Macho bridge, 10 km NW of Gamboa, 125 m, Nee 7863 (MO, RSA, TEX). Chiriquí: Gualaca--Chiriquí Grande, 13.6 mi. N of Continental Divide, 120 m, 8E57'N, 8E56'W, Croat 74934 (MO). Coclé: 27 km N of Penonomé, on road to Coclesito, at Continental Divide, 1500 ft., Hammel 1648 (SEL, MO); Llano Grande--Coclesito, 12 mi. from Llano Grande, 200 m, 8E47'N, 80E28'W, Churchill et al. 3987 (RSA). Colón: ca. 8 km E of Piña, 50--100 m, 9E17'N, 80EW, Thompson 4815 (CM, MO); Río Indio--Miguel de la Borda, 0 m, Croat 36927 (MO); near Nuevo Tonosí, 2 mi. from Portobelo, on road to Nombre de Dios, <100 m, Croat 33527 (MO); Santa Rita Ridge, Transisthmian Highway, ca. 10 mi. from hwy., Porter et al. 4738 (MO); ca. 7 mi. from Transisthmian Highway, ca. 650 ft., Wilbur et al. 15083 (MO); Santa Rita Trail, Cowell 106 (NY). Panamá: ca. 20 km from Inter-American Highway, N of Cerro Azul, Mori et al. 3786 (MO); Río Terabe Valley, El Llano--Cartí, 8 km from Pan-American Highway, 300--400 m, 9E16'N, 79EW, Knapp & Schmalzel 5476 (MO). San Blas: Isla Playón Chico, 0--50 m, 9E20'N, 78E13'W, Herrera 369 (MO); Nusagandi, El Llano--Cartí Road, 9 mi. N of main highway, 350 m, 9E20'N, 79EW, Croat & Zhu 76566 (MO, SEL). Veraguas: Santa Fe--Río Calovébora, 0.6 mi. beyond agricultural school near Santa Fe, 735 m, Croat 32982 (MO).