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Philodendron anisotomum Schott,

Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 179. 1858. Philodendron fenzlii Schott var. anisotomum (Schott) Engl., in A. D. C. & C. D. C., Monogr. Phan. 2: 412. 1879. TYPE: Guatemala. Las Nubes, Wendland 321 (GOET; lectotype, here designated). Figures 44, 53--56, 75.

Philodendron affine Hemsl., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Mexic.: 37. 1879. TYPE: Guatemala. Barranca Honda, Volcán de Fuego, 3800 ft., Salvin s.n. (holotype, K).

Philodendron dagilla Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 5: 179. 1858. TYPE: Costa Rica. Cartago and Aguacate, Oersted s.n. (holotype, destroyed). Schott ic. 2592 (neotype, here designated).

Philodendron trisectum Standl., Publ. Field. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18: 137. 1937. TYPE: Costa Rica. Alajuela: La Palma de San Ramón, 1050 m, Brenes 5762 (holotype, F).

Usually a hemiepiphytic vine or sometimes on rocks; stem appressed-climbing, green as juvenile, graying with maturity, minutely and densely striate, sap watery, unscented, leaf scars conspicuous, 8--10 mm long, 7--9 mm wide; internodes smooth, semiglossy, to 2.5 cm long, 4--10 mm diam., usually longer than broad, medium green to olive-green, epidermis thin, tan, peeling; roots olive green, smooth, few per node; cataphylls thin, semispongy, to 10 cm long, unribbed, bluntly or sharply 1-ribbed, green, drying pale yellow-green, deciduous.
erect to spreading; petioles 21--57 cm long, (2)3--9 mm diam., terete, moderately spongy, whitish toward apex, slightly flattened toward apex adaxially, surface dark green striate at base; blades triangular in outline, deeply 3-lobed, subcoriaceous, moderately bicolorous, long-acuminate at apex (the acumen apiculate, to 3 mm long), hastate at base, 20--35 cm long, 20--42 cm wide (0.8--1 times longer than wide), (0.6--1 times the petiole length), upper surface dark green, semiglossy to glossy, drying dark brown to dark gray-green, lower surface semiglossy, paler, drying yellow-brown to yellow-green; anterior lobe oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, almost elliptic, 16--30 cm long, 7--15 cm wide (1--1.3(1.5)) times longer than lateral lobes); lateral lobes broadly confluent 1--3(8) cm with medial lobe, 10--25 cm long, 3--8.7 cm wide, directed outward (90E angle from midrib), acute to bluntly acute; sinus arcuate; midrib more or less flat to sunken, paler than surface above, broadly convex below; basal veins 4--7 per side, sometimes with last vein free to base, most veins coalesced 1.5--13 cm, 2 veins coalesced to 17 cm, drying reddish brown to yellowish brown; posterior rib naked; primary lateral veins 4--5 per side, departing midrib at a 50--60E angle, narrowly sunken above, convex below; interprimary veins weakly sunken and concolorous above, weakly raised and darker than surface below; tertiary veins visible, darker than surface below; minor veins fine, close, weakly visible to distinct below, arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins but mostly from the midrib.

INFLORESCENCES erect-spreading, 1 per axil; peduncle 5.5--19.5 cm long, 3--8 mm diam.; spathe 7.4--16.6 cm long, (0.8--1.4(1.7) times longer than peduncle); spathe blade green to greenish white to creamy yellow, tinged with violet-purple outside, tinged with violet purple, at least sometimes with yellowish resin canals visible inside; spathe tube green outside, 4--6 cm long, 2--3.5 cm diam., dark violet-purple inside; spadix sessile; white, drying golden-yellow throughout, tapered, more or less rounded at apex, 7.5--10.8 cm long, broadest near the base; pistillate portion pale green (post-anthesis), ellipsoid, 3.6 cm long, 1.3 cm diam. at apex, 1.2 cm diam. at middle, 6 mm wide at base; staminate portion to 8.4 cm long; fertile staminate portion white, ellipsoid, tapered at apex, 8 mm diam. at base, 5 mm diam. at middle, 5 mm diam. ca. 1 cm from apex, broadest at base, much narrower than the pistillate portion; sterile staminate portion tannish, 8 mm diam.; pistils (1.5)2.9--4.4 mm long, 1.7--2.3 mm diam., ovary (6)7--8-locular, (1)2.2--3.2 mm long, ovule sac 0.7 mm long, with sub-basal placentation; ovules 3 per locule, contained within translucent, gelatinous ovule sac, ca. 0.4 mm long, longer than funicle; funicle 0.2--0.3 mm long, (can be pulled free to base), style similar to style type B; style apex flat; stigma discoid, 5--6 mm diam., 0.1 mm high, covering center of style apex; the androecium more or less prismatic, margins irregularly 4--6-sided, 0.7-1.1 mm long; thecae oblong, 0.3 mm wide, more or less divaricate; sterile staminate flowers irregularly 5--6-sided, 1 mm wide. INFRUCTESCENCE 9.5-16 cm long, peduncle to 14 cm long; spadix to 5.3 cm long, to 3 cm wide; berries orange, rhomboid; seeds 1--2(3) per locule, (16)21--22(29) per berry, light brown, 1.5--2 mm long, 0.5 mm diam., with weak constriction (nipple) opposite funicular end of seed.

Flowering in Philodendron anisotomum appears to be restricted to the rainy season in Central America. One collection was seen in May in flower but most are from the months of July through December (the latter month is sometimes the beginning of the dry season in parts of Middle America). Immature fruits were collected from December through July with mature fruits known only from March, April, and July.

Philodendron anisotomum ranges from Mexico to Costa Rica, at 30 to 1800 m elevation. In Mexico, the species ranges from Nayarit to Oaxaca and Chiapas mostly along the Pacific coast but also occurs in Puebla (Ajenjibre) and Morelos (Cuernavaca). One collection, Moore & Bunting 8874, from near Córdoba in Veracruz state appears out of range for the species.

Collections from Guatemala are few, but all are from the Pacific slope except one collection from Baja Verapaz between El Chol and Rabinal (Croat & Hannon 63670). In Honduras and Costa Rica, the species is nearly restricted to the Pacific slope. In Costa Rica the species occurs in Premontane moist forest. Philodendron anisotomum is a member of P. sect. Tritomophyllum.

This species is distinguished by its deeply three-lobed blades with frequently much smaller, falcate lateral lobes broadly confluent with the medial lobe.

Philodendron anisotomum is easily confused with P. tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott, which differs in having proportionately narrower medial lobes (mostly 3-3.5, rarely to 1.7 times longer than broad) with 4--9 prominently sunken primary lateral veins and lateral lobes typically directly more or less toward the apex. It has only one ovule per locule and white fruits. In contrast, P. anisotomum has medial lobes less than 1.5--2.8 times longer than broad with 2--4(5) weakly sunken primary lateral veins and usually much smaller lateral lobes typically directed outward, as well as 3 ovules per locule, and orange fruits.

Material from Nayarit (McVaugh 13363, Moore & Bunting 8703) is not only geographically isolated from populations in Puebla, Cuernavaca, and Oaxaca but also differs morphologically by having much larger blades (medial lobe >23 cm wide) with the lateral lobes narrowly rounded rather than pointed.

Costa Rican collections differ in sometimes having two inflorescences per axil, rather than solitary inflorescences which is more typical.

Philodendron dagilla Schott, published on the same page as P. anisotomum, was considered a synonym of P. tripartitum by Krause (1913), but it is clearly synonymous with P. anisotomum. Schott distinguished it from P. anisotomum by its longer, less spreading lateral lobes, but they are well within the norm.

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Additional specimens examined.

COSTA RICA. 1911, without locality, Pittier & Durand 3090 (BR); Worthen s.n. (MO). Alajuela: San Pedro de San Ramón, 1075 m, Brenes 4874(33) (F); San Ramón, 1500--1600 m, Tonduz 17719 (BM, K, P); San Ramón-Balsa, 2.3 km N of Río Balsa, 1050--1150 m, 10E11'N, 84E30'W, Stevens 14193 (MO), ca. 5.7 km N of Quebrada Volio, 1100--1150 m, ca. 10E08'N, 84E29'W, 14165 (CR, MO); San Ramón--Balsa, 5.7 mi. N of San Ramón, 1200 m, Croat 46837 (MO); San Ramón--Bajo Rodriguez, 940 m, Croat 78892 (CR, INB, MO); San Ramón--San Lorenzo, 1 km S of Balsa, 1100 m, 10E10'N, 84E29'W, Liesner & Judziewicz 14937 (CR, MO); 1--3 km E of San Ramón, ca. 1000 m, 10E05'N, 84E27'W, Liesner 14198 (B, CR, MO); above Río San Luis, 15 km NW of San Ramón, 800 m, 10E14'N, 83E31'W, Lent 3108 (F); Finca Los Ensayos, ca. 11 mi. NW of Zarcero, 900 m, Croat 43522 (MO); Zarcero region, ca. 100 m, Smith A447 (MO); ca. 7.5 mi. N of Zarcero, ca. 1000 m, Croat 43499 (MO); ca. 15 km N of Zarcero, 1350 m, Williams et al. 29041 (F); along Rte. 9, ca. 2 km N of Cariblanco de Sarapiquí, 800 m, 10E17'N, 84E12'W, Grayum et al. 8098 (MO); Atenas, near old Pan-American Highway, Gentry 782B (CR, MO); San Luis de Zarcero, Cantón Alfaro Ruiz, 1425 m, A. Smith H1178 (F, MO); N of Carrizal, 1440 m, Grayum 3085 (DUKE); Cantón San Carlos at Sucre, 975 m, A. Smith H1669 (F, US); San Isidro de San Ramón, 1259 m, 10E04'46"N, 84E26'30"W, Herrera 58 (AAU, M, MEXU, MO); Monteverde Biological Reserve, Río Peñas Blancas, 900 m, 10E18'N, 84E45'W, Haber & Bello 7181 (MO); 1250--1350 m, 9E17'N, 84E84'W, Burger et al. 10770 (CHAPA, CR); Río Peje, 4 km S of Ciudad Quesada, 960 m, Lent 1274 (BM, CR, F, GH); Río Trojas, 2 km N of La Luisa, 1380 m, 1674 (CR, US). Cartago: Juan Viñas, 1300 m, Carpenter 608 (US); S slope of Volcán Irazú, Standley 36638 (US); Stevens 48 (US). Guanacaste: La Cruz de Abangares, 1400 m, Haber & Bello 2881 (MO); Monteverde, 1400 m, 10E22'N, 84E49'W, Haber & Zuchowski 8734 (CR, ENCB, L, MO, QCA); 8 km NW of Monteverde, 1200 m, 10E22'N, 84E51'W, Haber & Zuchowski 9518 (INB, MO). Puntarenas: Cordillera de Talamanca, foothills around Tres Colinas, 1800--1850 m, 9E07'N, 83E04'W, Davidse et al. 25635 (MO); Cantón de Buenos Aires, Quebrada Dorora (tributary of Río Kuiyé), ca. 9 km NE of Ujarrás, 1500 m, 9E17'30N, 83E16'W, Grayum 10275 (CAS, CR, INB, K, MO, US); Reserva Biológica Carara Estación Quebrada Bonita, 30 m, 9E46'N, 84E36'W, Bello & Rojas 2286 (CR, INB, MO). San José: ca. 25 km N of San Isidro del General, along the Inter-American Highway, 1800 m, 9E29'N, 83E41'W, Burger & Baker 10078 (CR, F); Finca Micos--Llano Limón, ca. 8.5 km by road W of Ciudad Colón, 550--650 m, 9E56'N, 84E18'W, Grayum et al. 6096 (MO); San José, Standley 47358 (US), ca. 1130 m, 41210 (US), 47334 (US), 1150 m, 33262 (US); 1.4 km NW of Brazil de Santa Ana, 800 m, Taylor 17378 (NY, US); San Sebastián, S of San José, 1160 m, Standley 49293 (US); San Pedro Montes de Oca--Curridabat, ca. 1200 m, 32830 (US), 1250 m, 41307 (US); Río María Aguilar, near San José, 1200 m, 38952 (US); Las Pavas, 1070 m, 36085 (US); camino de Hatillo, near San José, 1200 m, 32171 (US); Acosta, Z.P. Cerros de Escazú, Río Tabarcia, 1600--1700 m, 9E50'52"N, 84E04'40"W, Morales 2745 (CR, MO) Valle del Candelaria, 1000--1050 m, Morales & González 4596 (CR, INB); Santiago de Puriscal, Echeverría 838 (F). EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapán: Padilla 60297 (US), 1922, 297 (US), 60 (US); 2-3 mi. NE of Bridge Imposible, 1000--1250 m, Croat 42162 (MO). San Salvador: Tonecatepeque, Calderón 200 (US); 650--850 m, Standley 19199 (GH, NY, US). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Cobán, ca. 1300 m, Standley 90275 (F); Semococh, 17 km from Sebol, on Cobán Road, Contreras 4714 (LL); 5 mi. N of Cobán, along Highway CA-14, 1300 m, Croat 41406 (MO); 5 mi. S of Cobán, along Highway CA-14, 1300 m, 41364 (MO); San Juan Chamelco, Wilson 41008 (F). Baja Verapaz: Mpio. Rabinal, El Chol--Rabinal, Highway 6, 8.7 mi. N of El Chol, 1330 m, 15E03'N, 90E29'W, Croat & Hannon 63670 (GH, LL, MO, TEX). Chiquimula: Quezaltepeque, 1200--1500 m, Steyermark 31198 (F). Escuintla: Escuintla--Santa Lucía Colz, Río Jute--Río Pantcaleon, Standley 63390 (F); Río Burrión, NE of Escuintla, 89605 (F, MEXU). Jalapa: Los Chorras along Río Pinule, 1 mi. W of San Pedro Pinula, 1400 m, Steyermark 32931 (F). Jutiapa: San José Acatempo--Río de los Esclanos, Cuesta de la Conora, 900--1,200 m, Standley 60616 (F). Quezaltenango: Reserve INDE, "Santa María", km 199, 1200--1300 m, 14E45'N, 91E32'W, Croat & Hannon 63435 (B, CM, BM, MO, NY, US); Calahuaché, 1020 m, Standley 67137 (F); below Santa María de Jesús, 1350--1380 m, 68386 (F); Finca Pirineos--Patzulín, 1200--1400 m, 86844 (F), 86918 (F). Retalhuleu: Río Coyote, 4 km W of Retalhuleu, 300 m, 87496 (F). Sacatepéquez: near Las Lajas, 1200 m, 58284 (F); Pueblo Nuevo, 750 m, 66976 (F). San Marcos: Finca Armenia, near La Trinidad, above San Rafael, 1100--1250 m, Croat 40826 (MO); La Trinidad, ca. 2 km from Finca Armenia, above San Rafael, 1100--1250 m, 40864 (MO); Finca El Porvenir "Numero 6", Volcán Tajumulco, Steyermark 37140 (F, MEXU); Volcán Tajumulco, above Finca Porvenir, 1300--1500 m, 37358 (F, US). Santa Rosa: El Molino, ca. 600 m, Standley 78508 (F); Volcán Jumaytepeque, 6000 pp, Heyde & Lux 4283 (CM, GH, NY, US). HONDURAS. Olancho: Río Olancho, Gualaco--San Bonito Oriental, 7.4 mi. NE of San Esteban, 540 m, 15E20'N, 85E42'W, Croat & Hannon 64364 (MO, VEN). MEXICO. Teas s.n. (MO). Chiapas: 8.5 mi. NE of Escuintla, on gravel road to El Triunfo, 250 m, Croat 43823 (MO); ca. 4 km N of Ovando Turquía, 450--850 m, 47575 (MO); Tapachula-Unión Juárez, at km 13.5, 1.3 mi. N of Trinidad, ca. 1000 m, 47212 (MO); San Fernando-Moravillas, near Lago Malpaso, 4--66 mi. NW of San Fernando, 840--940 m, 16E53'N, 93E06'W, Croat & Hannon 65029 (CM, MO); Mpio. Angel Albino Corzo, along Río Cuxtepeques near Finca Gadow, 1270 m, Breedlove 40162 (CAS, DS); Barr. Aguas Calientes, Miranda 1740 (MEXU); finca between Finca Cuxtepeque and Finca Cabañas, 1100 m, Breedlove & Daniel 71160 (CAS); Las Nubes, Guatimoc, Miranda 1720 (MEXU); Cascada, Siltepec, 1800 m, Matuda 38677 (MEXU); Motozintla de Mendoza--Huixtla, 15 mi. S of Motozintla de Mendoza, 900 m, Croat 40764 (MO); Esperanza, Escuintla, Matuda 17791 (MEXU, MO), Matuda s.n. (MO), 16661 (F, MEXU, MICH, MO), 17768 (F, GH, MEXU); Zacatonal, Acacoyagua, 1200 m, 18364 (MEXU); Cerro Ovando, 900--1050 m, Croat 78479 (CHIP, CM, MO, NY); Escuintla, Turquía, Matuda 17066 (F, MEXU); Mpio. Angel Albino Corzo, 1380 m, Breedlove & Almeda 56917 (MO); 1380 m, Breedlove & Strother 46700 (MO); Mpio. Mapastepec, Sierra de Soconusco, new unfinished road to Tuxtla Gutiérrez from Hwy. 200, (5.5 mi. NW of turnoff to Mapastepec), 6.5--8.5 mi. up road, 15E32'N, 92E48'W, Croat & Hannon 63339 (B, CM, BM, MO, NY, PMA, US); Mpio. Villa Corzo, E base of Cerro Tres Picos, near Cerro Baul, 1500 m, Breedlove 23968 (DS). Jalisco: 20--22 km S of Talpa de Allende, 1200--1450 m, McVaugh 23308 (MICH). Morelos: near Cuernavaca, Pringle 7015 (GH); Cuernavaca, Rose & Hough 4438 (US). Nayarit: Tepic--Jalcocotán, near km 20, 700--800 m, Moore & Bunting 8703 (BH); at km 15, ca. 900 m, 8694 (BH); ca. 4 mi. E of Jalcocotán on road to Tepic, 750 m, McVaugh 13363 (MICH). Oaxaca: Oaxaca--Pochutla, along Highway 175, 55.1 mi. S of Miahuatlán, 21.9 mi. S of Suchixtepic, 39.7 mi. N of turnoff to Pluma Hildato, 1540 m, Croat 46108 (MEXU, MO); Pinotepa Nacional--Tlaxiaco, along Highway 125, 5.8 mi. N of Putla de Guerrero, ca. 1000 m, 45904 (MO); Oaxaca-Pochutla, ca. 56 mi. S of Miahuatlán, 6.9 mi. N of turnoff to Pluma Hidalgo, 1480 m, 46116 (DUKE, F, MO). Puebla: Ajenjibre, Bravo I-4516 (MEXU). VERACRUZ: Córdoba--Veracruz, Ejido San José de Gracia, below Peñuelo, Moore & Bunting 8874 (BH).