Philodendron cotobrusense Croat & Grayum, sp. nov.
TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: along road about halfway between Flor del Roble and Las Alturas de Coto Brus, 1250 m, 8E54'N, 82E51'W, 13 July 1985, Grayum & Hammel 5689 (holotype, MO--3446320; isotypes, CR, K, US). Figure 120.
Planta hemiepiphytica; internodia 1--3 cm longa, 1.5--2 cm diam., cum epidermide argenteocana; cataphylla usque 14 cm longa, acute 2-costata, decidua; petiolus 32.5--35 cm longus; lamina profunde 3-lobata, 37--38 cm longa, 46--52 cm lata, venis confertis; nervis lateralibus I 18--19 utroque; inflorescentia usque 5; pedunculus 6--9 cm longus; spatha 6--14 cm longa, lamina spathae extus cremeoflava, intus eburnea; tubo spathae extus viridi, intus rubro-violacio; pistilla 6--7-locularia; loculi 3-ovulati.
Hemiepiphyte; stem appressed-climbing; internodes short, thick, 1--3 cm long, 1.5--2 cm diam., mostly longer than broad, epidermis silvery gray; cataphylls to 14 cm long, sharply 2-ribbed, yellow-green, tinged pinkish, deciduous; petioles 32.5--35 cm long, 4--9 mm diam., subterete, firm, obtusely flattened adaxially, surface matte; blades deeply 3-lobed, margins incised to within 1.5--2 cm of base, subcoriaceous, weakly bicolorous, long-acuminate at apex (the acumen probably downturned, more or less cordate at base, 37--39 cm long, 46--52 cm wide (0.7--0.8 times longer than wide), (1--1.2 times longer than petiole), usually about equal to petiole, upper surface dark green, semiglossy, lower surface weakly glossy, somewhat paler; median lobes 30.5--32 cm long, 13--17 cm wide; lateral lobes 24--27 cm long, 9--12.6 cm wide (2.14--2.88 times longer than wide), directed more or less upward, broadly confluent to 2.5 cm with medial lobes; midrib broadly convex, closely veined above, convex below; basal veins lacking; primary lateral veins 18--19 per side, departing midrib at a 50--65E angle, broadly curved to the margins, sunken above, convex below; interprimary veins almost as conspicuous as primary lateral veins; tertiary veins visible, slightly darker than surface; minor veins arising from both the midrib and primary lateral veins but mostly from midrib in upper half of blade.
INFLORESCENCES to 5 per axil; peduncle 6--9 cm long, 3--4 mm diam., terete; spathe 6--14 cm long (1.8--3.5 times longer than peduncle); spathe blade creamy yellow outside, creamy white inside; spathe tube green outside, red-violet to purplish inside; spadix 9.5--12 cm long; pistillate portion yellow-green, 7--10 mm diam.; staminate portion 5--8 cm long; fertile staminate portion white, 8--12 mm diam.; ovary 6--7-locular, with sub-basal placentation; ovule sac 1 mm long; ovules 3 per locule, digitately arranged in series of 2--3, contained within transparent ovule sac, 0.2--0.3 mm long, slightly shorter than funicle; funicle ca. 0.3 mm long, (can be pulled free to base), style similar to style type B; style apex flat; stigma subdiscoid, 1 mm diam., 0.2--0.3 mm high, covering entire style apex; the androecium truncate, more or less oblong, prismatic, irregularly 4--6-sided, 0.7--1.1 mm long; thecae oblong, 0.3 mm wide, more or less parallel to one another.
Flowering in Philodendron cotobrusense has been recorded only during the early rainy season in July.
Philodendron cotobrusense is known only from eastern Costa Rica in the Cordillera de Talamanca, at 1000 to 1250 m elevation in a Premontane wet forest transition to rain forest life zone.
Philodendron cotobrusense is a member of P. sect. Tritomophyllum. This species is characterized by its appressed-climbing habit, sharply two-ribbed, deciduous cataphylls, short, thick internodes with a silvery-gray epidermis, petioles about equaling the deeply three-lobed, closely veined blades (with more than 16 pairs of primary lateral veins), and especially by the inflorescences in clusters of up to five per leaf axil with the spathe tube green outside, red-violet within and the blade creamy yellow on outside and creamy white within.
Philodendron cotobrusense is most similar to P. madronoense Croat. That species differs in having the medial segment even more closely veined (to 18 or more) and not at all confluent with the lateral lobes. In addition, it has solitary inflorescences.
Philodendron cotobrusense is also similar to P. tripartitum, but that species differs in usually having narrower, usually oblanceolate to oblanceolate-elliptic blades with more widely spaced primary lateral veins (usually 4--10, rarely to 12), and fewer inflorescences per axil (up to three) with longer peduncles. In addition, P. cotobrusense has 3 ovules per locule whereas P. tripartitum has one.
Davidse 24202, tentatively placed in P. tripartitum, seems to be somewhat intermediate with P. cotobrusense. See the discussion of that species.
Click on the Thumbnail to enlarge the picture.
Addtional specimen examined.
COSTA RICA. San José: General Valley, between Canaán and Chimirol, Río Chirripó del Pacífico, 1000 m, 9E27'N, 83E37'W, Burger & Liesner 7119 (F).