Your search for articles by authors with the surname Gibernau has found 17 articles.

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Marc Gibernau, D. Macquart, A. Diaz Pollen viability and longevity in two species of Arum (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Pollen-loaded insects are not obligatorily captured rapidly by odoriferous inflorescences after their escape from a 'pollen-donor' inflorescence, but may be caught two or three days later. In such a situation, can these insects be considered as pollinators (Le., pollen vectors) or just visitors? Our results confirm that pollen grains in both species Arum italicum and A. maculatum quickly lose their viability. In natural conditions, pollen must then be dispersed quickly between male phase and female phase inflorescences in order for the pollination to be efficient. In fact, it should happen during the first hours after female psychoda are liberated by male phase inflorescences. This is because pollinators captured on subsequent days would most probably carry non-viable pollen and thus would not pollinate the inflorescence they visit. In natural conditions, pollen grains were viable for two days. By contrast, refrigerated pollen was viable for a longer time (4-5 days). Thus refrigeration at 8 or 15°C appears to be a good method to store pollen and prolong its viability.
Marc Gibernau Pollinations and visitors of aroid inflorescences (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Data on aroid pollinators was first summarized by Grayum (1984) who documented 35 genera and about 90 species. A second summary was published in 1997 in The Genera of Araceae (Mayo et al., 1997) with 38 genera and less than 100 species listed including data from Grayum 0986, 1990). This paper brings the reference list up to date since 1997, documenting the pollinators of 49 genera and about 125 species. These numbers are still very low in comparison with the diversity of the Araceae family which contains 105 genera and about 3,300 species. Some questions on aroid pollination are developed in the discussion.
Marc Gibernau, C. Favre, Thierry Talou, C. Raynaud Floral odor of Arum italicum (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Volatile compounds emitted by the appendix of Arum italicum Mill. in the South of France were analysed. Three chemotypes were found. The first was rich in fatty acid derivatives (about 75%) but was found in only one individual and needs to be confirmed. A second profile (4 individuals) showed a high proportion (57-84% of the blend) of monoterpenes (~-citronellene and 3,7-dimethyl-1-octene, its reduced chemical form). The third profile (2 individuals sampled twice) was rich 09- 85% of the blend) in sesquiterpenes, particularly two isomers ('Y and ~) of caryophyllene. Moreover p-cresol and 2-heptanone were also present in the blend. Further work is needed to resolve whether these odor differences are different chemotypes of Arum italicum, temporal variation during the flowering season or analytical and experimental biases.
Marc Gibernau, D. Macquart, G. Przetak Pollination in the genus Arum - A review (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: The 28 species of the genus Arum (Araceae) attract and temporarily trap insects (mainly flies, and beetles in a few cases) during a complex pollination process. At anthesis, the appendix of the inflorescence produces heat and emits a specific odor which attracts insects. The lured insects are trapped within the floral chamber when stigmas are receptive. They will be released about 24h later after pollen emission, ensuring pollen dissemination. Studies on the reproductive biology of the genus have shown some degree of variability in the pollination strategies: morphological variations, flowering and heating periods, odor types and the type of pollinating insects. Most species of Arum have never been studied in depth but data available from the literature indicate quite a high diversity of pollination strategy within this genus. Consequently, a general pollination model is not valid at the level of the whole genus. The origin of this diversity certainly results from the biogeographic history of the genus. The plants (Le. species) have developed adaptations in response to different climatic, ecological and biotic (i.e. entomofauna) constraints (Le. selective pressures) according to the various habitats occupied in the different regions of Europe and the Middle East. However, in the absence of phylogenetic data, it is actually impossible to determine how these different reproductive strategies have developed and evolved during the history of this genus.
A. Quilichini, Aurelia Torre, Marc Gibernau Preliminary data on the biology and reproduction of Ambrosina bassii L. (Araceae) in Corsica (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: This study explores the floral biology and reproduction mode of Ambrosina bassii L. that belongs to a monospecific genus of the subfamily Aroideae (Araceae). The species has a limited distribution and the number of mature plants within natural populations is low. Reproductive success of this species is limited due to low fructification and seed rates, however there is a positive relationship between the plant vigour and its investment to the reproduction. In stable habitats, there are more flowering plants than in newly colonized habitats, where the frequency of juvenile non-mature plants is higher. The knowledge of these biological and reproductive characters constitutes the first data useful for the preservation and the management of this rare, endangered and protected species on Corsica.
Marc Gibernau, J. Albre Size variations of flowering characters in Arum italicum (Araceae) (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: In Arum, bigger individuals should proportionally invest more in the female function (number or weight of female flowers) than the male. The aim of this paper is to quantify variations in reproductive characters (size of the spadix parts, number of inflorescences) in relation to plant and inflorescence sizes. The appendix represents 44% of the spadix length. The female zone length represents 16.5% of the spadix length and is much longer than the male zone (6%). Moreover these three spadix zones increase with plant vigour indicating an increasing investment into reproduction and pollinator attraction. It appears that the length of appendix increased proportionally more than the lengths of the fertile zones. On average an inflorescence counts 156 male flowers and 61 female flowers which result in a male-biased floral ratio in A. italicum. The numbers of male and female flowers increased significantly with the spadix size but differently according to the gender, the number of female flowers increasing faster than male: on the other hand this effect was marginally significantly (p = .08). This relative gender difference of flower number increase is visualised by a significant decrease of the maleness floral ratio with spadix size.
M. Chartier, Marc Gibernau Size variation of flowering characters in Arum maculatum (Araceae) (Buy)
Marc Gibernau, M. Chouteau, K. Lavallée, D. Barabe Notes on the Phenology, Morphometry and Floral Biology of Anaphyllopsis americana (Araceae) (Buy)
D. Barabe, Marc Gibernau Thermogenic Patterns in Philodendron ornatum and P. grandifolium: A Comparative Analysis (Buy)
Marc Gibernau Pollinators and Visitors of Aroid Inflorescences: an addendum (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Data on aroid pollinators or inflorescence visitors were reviewed lately by Gibernau (2003), documenting the pollinators of 49 genera and about 125 species. This addendum adds information on 35 genera, of which 9 are newly documented, and about 60 species. In summary, we have some information on pollinators or inflorescence visitors on 58 genera and about 165 species. Such numbers are very low in comparison of the family diversity (more than 110 genera and about 4,000 species). The pollination of entire groups of Araceae is still unknown. The knowledge on the pollination of each tribe is discussed.
Marc Gibernau, Derek Burch Planning Pollination Experiments
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 ABSTRACT: In the last few years, the first author has been contacted several times by aroiders, colleagues or students interested in studying the pollination ecology of an Aroid species, in the field or in garden conditions. According to their request, the best experimental design adapted to answer their question was proposed. Of course, many experimental designs associated with pollination exist. In the following article, we present different simple and useful experiments classified according to their time investment
Marc Gibernau, Roger S. Seymour Pollination Success of the Corsican Helicodiceros muscivorus (Araceae) (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: The pollination success of the dead horse arum, Helicodiceros muscivorus, was studied in one Corsican population. This aroid species is pollinated by deception, attracting blowflies by mimicking the floral volatiles emitted by mammal cadavers. The reproductive individuals were taller and larger than non-reproductive ones, indicating that the plant vigor and thus the available amount of resources is an important factor in the production of an inflorescence. The reproductive success of the dead horse arum increased with the size of the inflorescence, as judged by a positive linear correlation between the appendix length and the total number of flies trapped within the floral chamber. Larger inflorescences had a longer appendix and thus a better probability to attract and dupe pollinating flies. The absence of correlation between floral sex-ratio and the spadix size indicated that there was no expression of the size-advantage model in H. muscivorus apparent in some other Araceae. The most probable explanation is that pollination efficiency is high because of low diversity and high abundance of pollinating insects.
Marc Gibernau Floral Biology, Pollination Ecology & Genetics of Dieffenbachia (Araceae)—A Review (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: This article presents a review on the floral biology, the pollination ecology and the population genetics in the genus Dieffenbachia (Araceae). Few studies had specifically studied Dieffenbachia species; in fact, data are available for only 5 species and not always in a complete way. In addition, some horticultural experiments on breeding and hormone treatments provide interesting complementary information. Even if the number of documented species is low; Dieffenbachia appears to be a genus presenting classic traits of cyclocephaline pollinated taxa. But more surprising these few data underline some variations of the pollination ecology or reproductive system within the genus suggesting a “dynamic” genus in terms of evolutionary changes. Further works on the biology and ecology of the species of this genus are needed and they should be done in the context of the tribe Spathicarpeae.
Marc Gibernau Pollination ecology of two Dieffenbachia in French Guiana (Read)
 ABSTRACT: The reproductive ecology of two species of Dieffenbachia (D. seguine [Jacq.] Schott and D. paludicola N.E. Br. ex Gleason) was studied at the Nouragues field station research in French Guiana. As in other known Dieffenbachia, the two studied species presented the classical cyclocephaline (dynastine scarab beetle) pollination system: Nocturnal anthesis with a strong odor, protogynous and short anthesis over 2 (3) days, female flowers being receptive on the first night and pollen being released on the second night. Inflorescences of D. seguine were visited by two species of scarab beetles (Cyclocephalini, Dynastinae): the dark brown Cyclocephala rustica and the black Erioscelis proba; while Inflorescences of D. paludicola were only visited by Erioscelis proba. Scarab beetles were efficient pollinators resulting in a high reproductive success even if some self-pollination can occur. Original data were gathered on flower and fruit predation leading to pollen and seed loss but their effect of the reproductive success still needs to be quantified.
Marc Gibernau Pollinators and Visitors of Aroid Inflorescences III - Phylogenetic & Chemical insights. (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: This update on aroid pollinators or inflorescence-visitors adds information on 32 genera (and 60 species). Of these, 10 aroid genera and about 36 species are newly documented or revisited under new generic names. In summary, currently available data on the subject now sums up to approximately 200 aroid species across 67 genera. An ever increasing number of studies now aim at establishing the identity of effective pollinating insects among all the visitors, but also at understanding how other florivorous or phytophagous insects can affect the plant reproductive success. In recent years, many studies have integrated molecular and/or chemical data to the study of aroid pollination. Such multidisciplinary approaches further increase our knowledge of the functional and evolutionary processes involved. Aroid-insect interactions are far more complex than just plant-pollinator relationships, they include in many cases non-mutualistic partners taking advantage of the interaction to carry on with their biological cycles. Hence interactions between these plants and their inflorescence visitors are subjected to multiple selective pressures, which ultimately drive the evolution of the component parts and the whole.
M. Chartier, Jean-Loup Fernandez, David Prehsler, Jürg Schönenberger, Marc Gibernau Note on the pollination of Calla palustris L. (Araceae) (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Calla palustris L., despite its wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, is poorly understood with respect to its ecology. We made observations on the flowering sequence and on floral visitors in a natural population in the Vosges, France, and conducted mating system experiments in the Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna. The anthesis of Calla inflorescences lasted approximately ten days. It started by a female phase with stigmas becoming receptive from the base to the top of the inflorescences. Stamen dehiscence followed the same pattern and the male phase started towards the end or after completion of the female phase. Our experiments showed that Calla is at least partly self-pollinated or apomictic, as ca. 20 % of the gynoecia developed into fruits and produced seeds without pollinators. Entomophily cannot be excluded, as we observed few small Coleoptera and Diptera visiting the inflorescences. Anemophily, although less probable, remains to be tested.
Nathan Hartley, Thorsten Krömer, Marc Gibernau Lepidopteran visitors of Anthurium inflorescences (Buy)
 ABSTRACT: Observations on the pollination biology of the genus Anthurium are scant in comparison to other aroid genera despite comprising nearly 33% of all aroid species. Here we report two independent observations of lepidopteran visitors in two species of Anthurium. In Costa Rica, two different species of fruit-piercing moths (Erebidae) were observed visiting two separate individuals of A. caperatum in pistillate anthesis at night; however, no evidence for pollen vectorization was obtained. In Mexico, several individuals of the 88-butterfly (Diaethria anna; Nymphalidae) were observed visiting A. podophyllum during the middle of the day. Additionally, pollen of A. podophyllum was observed deposited on the ventral abdomen of an 88-butterfly. These findings, although lacking the data needed to confirm their role as pollinators of these Anthurium, are significant in that they represent the first documentation of lepidopteran visitors for any species of aroid. A review of spadix secretions in Anthurium is also provided and an encouragement to augment the number of studies on pollination biology of this genus is offered.