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Key to Arisaemas of China

From the Flora of China

(Translated from the Chinese) 
Posted March 13, 1996, reformatted March, 1997. 
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32. Arisaema (sections)

1. Leaf blades 3-partite 
    2. Appendix thin, usually linear, recurved. 

      3. Sterile flowers linear, recurved, sometimes to appendix apex. 
        Sect. 1 Fimbriata 
      3. Sterile flowers absent or, if present, acute and only at base of appendix. 
        Sect. 2 Attenuata 
    2. Appendix more or less thick. 
      4. Anthers dehiscing by hippocrepiform or lunate slits; upper appendix flagelliform, much exceeding spathe, pendulous, lower part thick and base expanded into a stipitate disk. 
        Sect. 4 Trisecta 
      4. Anthers not dehiscing by lunate slits. 
        5. Appendix obclavate, nearly erect or slightly recurved, obtuse at apex and gradually narrowed at base into a stipe; anthers dehiscing by rounded or oblong pores. 
          Sect. 3 Franchetiana 
        5. Appendix obclavate, more or less cylindric, erect, in spathe mouth; anthers dehiscing by elliptic or oblong pores. 
          Sect. 5 Pistillata 
1. Leaf blade pedatisect, palmatisect, or radiatisect. 
    6. Leaf blade pedatisect or palmatisect. 
      7. Appendix sessile, elongate. 
        8. Appendix sigmoid (recurved then erect), narrowed to apex 
          Sect. 6 Tortuosa 
        8. Appendix recurved, thicker below and flagelliform above 
          Sect. 8 Flagellarisaema 
      7. Appendix shorter, erect or slightly recurved. 
        9. Spathe very small, tube ovoid, blade ovate, recurved; appendix small and short, elliptic; leaf blade pedatisect. 
          Sect. 7 Dochafa 
        9. Spathe large, tube funnel-form or cylindric. 
          10. Appendix erect, cylindric or clavate, base truncate; leaf blade 5-7-pedatisect. 
            11. Tuber cylindric 
              Sect. 9 Decipientia 
            11. Tuber globose 
              Sect. 10 Arisaema 
          10. Appendix erect or slightly recurved, thin-cylindric, base not truncate, usually gradually narrowed to thin stipe; anther cells dehiscing by slits or annular pores. 
            Sect. 11 Tenuipistillata 
    6. Leaf blade radiatisect, leaflets 7-20 or more. 
      12. Spadix without appendix; anther cells annular-dehiscent 
        Sect. 12 Exappendiculata 
      12. Appendix cylindric or clavate, erect; anthers dehiscing by apical pores 
        Sect. 13 Sinarisaema 


Sect. 1 Fimbriata 

1. Leaf solitary; appendix short, less than 2.5 cm long. 
    2. Leaf lobes sessile; sterile flowers sparse, hairlike' only on upper part of appendix. 
      2. A. matsudai Hayata 

    2. Leaf lobes petiolulate, the central petiolule 5 mm, the laterals ca. 5 mm; sterile flowers less than 1 mm long, scattered on upper and lowermost parts of appendix. 
      3. A. austroyunnanense H.Li 
1. Leaves 2; plant with rhizome; appendix more than 4-5 cm long. 
    3. Spathe tube margin not auriculate at mouth. 
      4. Spathe blade white or light green; appendix 4-5 cm long, upper part densely covered with sterile flowers less than 2 mm long. 
        1. A. penicellatum N.E.Br. 
      4. Spathe blade 2-colored. 
        5. Spathe blade green above, white at base; upper appendix densely covered with sterile flowers less than 3 mm long. 
          4. A. grapsospadix Hayata 
        5. Spathe entirely yellowish green with white stripes; lower appendix covered with acute or linear, erect or recurved sterile flowers 3-8 (-10) mm [female inflorescence]. 
          5. A. calcareum H. Li 
    3. Spathe tube margin auriculate at mouth; spathe light green; appendix linear, 8 cm long, covered by linear sterile flowers 4-5 cm long [male inflorescence]. 
      5. A. calcareum H. Li 


Sect. 2 Attenuata 

1. Tuber globose; spathe not auriculate at mouth. 
    2. Leaf blade entire or 3-parted, lobes long and narrow, lanceolate or elliptic, middle lobe 10-17 x 1.0-2.5 (-3.5) cm; appendix long and thin, linear, 9-16 cm long, pendulous. 
      6. A. bathycoelum Hand.-M 
    2. Leaf blade 3-parted, lobes broader; appendix long or short. 
        3. Leaf solitary; plants dioecious [infl. male or female]; appendix 5-6 cm long, slightly recurved; central leaf lobe elliptic-lanceolate, 10-19 x 5-12 cm 
        8. A. yunnanense Buchet 
        3. Leaves 2; plants dioecious or monoecious [infl. bisexual or male]; appendix linear, attenuate, 8-40 cm long; central lobe ovate-oblong, 22-24 x 10 cm 
            7. A. prazeri Hk. 
1. Rhizome vertical; spathe margin auriculate at spathe tube mouth, auricles recurved 
    9. A. inkiangense H. Li 


Sect. 3 Franchetiana 

1. Spathe white or greenish white; appendix cylindric or fusiform, nearly erect, 3.0-3.7 cm long. 
    2. Inflorescence appearing before the leaf; spathe light green or white, with purple striae; appendix naked. 
      10. A. candidissimum W.W. Smith 
    2. Inflorescence and leaves appearing together; spathe white, without striae; female appendix with sterile flowers and a few male flowers on the lower part, male appendix naked or with a few acute sterile flowers. 
      11. A. sinii Krause 
1. Spathe purple with white striae; appendix conic. 
    3. Spathe blade acuminate at apex, long-caudate, cauda 3-10 cm long. 
      4. Spathe purple or green, blade short deltoid or lanceolate, arcuately reflexed, 6 x 2 cm, cauda 6 cm long. 
        12. A. delavayi Buchet 
      4. Spathe blade cucullate, 5.5-6.0 cm long, 4-5 cm wide when flattened, cauda 3-10 cm long; appendix recurved. 
        14. A. franchetianum Engl. 
    3. Spathe blade without long cauda. 
      5. Spathe tube broad and short, 2.5 x 1.3-1.5 cm, blade ovate-lanceolate, 3.5-4.0 cm long, erect or slightly recurved. 
        13. A. lichiangense W.W. Smith 
    5. Spathe tube narrow and long, 4-6 x 1.2-1.5 cm. 
      6. Appendix 3.5 cm long, 4 mm thick at the base, nearly erect; stigma discoid. 
        14. A. franchetianum Engl. 
      6. Appendix thick and strong, 4.5-5.5 cm long, 7-8 mm thick at base; stigma panicillate 
        15. A. fargesii Buchet 


Sect. 4 Trisecta 

1. Rhizome horizontal; middle leaf lobe longer than wide, petiolule conspicuous, red-margined; spathe dark purple, spathe blade long-ovate to lanceolate; appendix long-flagelliform, 20-80 cm long 
    17. A. speciosum (Wall.) Mart. 
1. Tuber globose or ovoid-conoid. 
    2. Middle leaf lobe elliptic, ovate or rhombic and longer than wide. 
      3. Lateral leaf veins parallel, conspicuous below; appendix stipitate conoid from expanded base 
        16. A. costatum (Wall.) Mart. 
      3. Lateral veins fewer. 
        4. Leaf lobes red at margins; spathe blade obovate, dark purple, with white striae below, with reticulate margins veins near margins. 
          20. A. utile Hook. f. 
        4. Leaf lobe margins not red; spathe blade with or without reticulate veins. 
          5. Spathe blade without reticulate veins; spathe not broadly expanded. 
            6. Appendix expanded and fusiform or conoid below, ca. 1 cm thick, base gradually narrowed into stipe, not truncate, 15-45 cm long. 
              18. A. intermedium Bl. 
            6. Appendix conspicuously dilated at base, truncate above, conspicuous basal stipe. 
              7. Spathe blade entire, oblong or ovate. 
                8. Spathe dark purple or yellow green, tube dark purple with white striae, with vertical costae inside; lower appendix conoid with irregular ridges, 5-8 mm thick, appendix 8-21 cm long; leaf lobes entire. 
                  19. A. propinquum Schott 
                8. Spathe blade dark purple, tube without white striae, ecostate inside; lower appendix thin-conoid, 1.5-1.8 cm thick, appendix 13.5-14.5 cm long; lead lobes irregularly undulate at margins 
                  22. A. dilatatum Buchet 
              7. Spathe blade purple, without striae 3-lobed, middle lobe lanceolate, 5 cm long, lateral lobes oblong, 1.3-1.5 cm long. 
                30. A tengtsungense H. Li 
          5. Spathe blade dilated and broadly expanded, with reticulate, white or green veins. 
            9. Appendix not verrucose, base not dilated into disk, truncate; leaf solitary, appearing with inflorescence. 
              31. A. griffithii Schott 
            9. Appendix not verrucose, base not dilated into disk, cylindric, attenuate into basal stipe leaf 1 (-2). 
              10. Tuber globose, 3-7 cm thick; leaf appears after inflorescence; inflorescence unisexual. 
                32. A.lingyunense H. Li 
              10. Tuber ovoid-conoid, 9 x 5 cm; leaf appears with inflorescence; inflorescence either male or female but with 2 series of pistils at base. 
                33. A. dahaiense H. Li 
    2. Middle leaf lobe obovate, obcordate or obdeltate, shorter than wide. 
      11. Appendix densely papillose-verrucose toward base; spathe whitish green, light yellow or purple, with white or yellow striae. 
        23. A. handelii Hand.-Mazz. 
      11. Appendix glabrous. 
        12. Petiole and pedunculate verrucose or with recurved spines. 
          13. Appendix narrow-conoid, obtuse at apex, nearly erect, 6.5 cm long; petiole, peduncle and veins on back of leaflets spinose. 
            25. A. asperatum N.E. Br. 
          13. Appendix conoid below, attenuate from middle, then linear, 12-28 cm long, recurved or sigmoid; petiole and peduncle verrucose. 
            24. A. elephas Buchet 
        12. Petiole and peduncle glabrous. 
          14. Leaf small, middle lobe 1.8-4.3 cm long and wide; appendix thin, shorter than spathe blade, stipitate, base suddenly dilated into an undulate disk; upper part recurved. 
            26. A. parvum 
          14. Leaf large, middle lobe more than 8 cm long and wide. 
            15. Appendix nearly erect, 6-8 cm long, base dilated into disk. 
              16. Leaf lobe margins slightly undulate 
                27. A. smithii Krause 
              16. Leaf lobes entire. 
                17. Middle leaf lobe usually 15-26 x 18-28 cm; lower appendix conoid, 1.2 cm thick, 20 cm long. 
                  28. A. wilsonii Engl. 
                17. Leaf blade smaller, middle lobe 8-11 x 8-12 cm; appendix suddenly dilated at base, 5-10 mm thick, sigmoid, rarely pendulous. 
                  24. A. elephas Buchet 
Characteristics unknown 
    29. A. bonatianum Engl. 


Sect. 5 Pistillata 

1. Leaf lobes glabrous on both sides. 
    2. Middle leaf lobe oblong, elliptic or lanceolate; spathe erect or recurved, not hooded. 
      3. Leaf lobes serrate, 9-11 cm long, lateral lobes equal at base; spathe throat nearly truncate, margin not recurved, spathe blade brown-purple, erect, margin deeply undulate. 
        34. A. onoticum Buchet 
      3. Leaf lobes entire, lateral lobes unequal at base, one side rounded to auriculate. 
        4. Middle leaf lobe with peticlule 1.5-5.0 cm long, blade oblong, elliptic or ovate, 8-22 x 4-10 cm; spathe throat nearly truncate, margin not auriculate. 
          35. A. lobatum Engl. 
        4. Middle leaf lobe sessile or nearly so, elliptic, 15-21 cm long; spathe throat margin auriculate. 
          36. A. biauriculatum W.W. Sm. 
    2. Middle leaf lobe broadly elliptic, rhombic-elliptic or elliptic; spathe tube pale green, throat margin laterally auriculate, the auricles dark purple, blade recurved into hood, apex ovate or oblong. 
      5. Leaf lobes narrow and long, 20-30 x 9-13 cm; ovary flat at apex, 4-5-ovulate. 
        38. A. taihokense Hosakawa 
      5. Leaf lobes broader, 15-23 cm long and more than 10 cm wide; ovary attenuate at apex, 1-ovulate. 
        37. A. ringens (Thunb.) Schott 
1. Leaf lobes pubescent on both sides, middle lobe ovate-lanceolate, 12 x 4 cm; spathe blade pubescent. 
    39. A. arisanense Hayata 


Sect. 6 Tortuosa 

1. Spathe throat margin truncate or oblique-truncate without conspicuous auricles. 
    2. Leaf 1. 
      3. Dioecious or only male inflorescence unisexual; leaflets 13-19, oblanceolate or oblong, middle sessile or shortly pedunculate, 3-15 x 0.7-5.8 cm, almost _ the length of the lateral leaflets. 
        40. A. heterophyllum Bl. 
      3. Monoecious. 
        4. Leaflets narrowly linear-lanceolate, less than 1.8 cm wide. 
          5. Leaflets entire, middle 20 x 1.0-1.5 cm; spadix long and thin, 20 x 2.5 mm, upper part hair-like, recurved and then sigmoid. 
            42. A. lineare Buchet 
          5. Leaflets purple at margin, serulate or crenulate, 9 x 1.8 cm; appendix 6 cm x 2.5 mm, nearly erect, attenuate upwards. 
            43. A. brachyspathum Hayata 
        4. Leaflets more than 2 cm wide. 
          6. Leaflets 17-21, linear-lanceolate; appendix not exceeding spathe. 
            41. A. multisectum Engl. 
          6. Leaflets fewer than 9. 
            7. Leaflets 7-9; appendix long and thin, nearly linear, 12 cm x 3 mm. 
              40. A. heterophyllum Bl. 
            7. Leaflets 5-7; linear to elliptic; appendix 4-6 cm x ca. 1 mm, erect or slightly recurved. 
              44. A. saxatile Buchet 
    2. Leaves 2. 
      8. Leaflets 5-17, rhombic-ovate, oblong to lanceolate, middle 5-30 x 1-7 cm; spathe blade ovate or oblong; spadix often bisexual. 
        45. A. tortuosum (Wall.) Schott 
      8. Leaflets 5-7, linear, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, middle 6-11 x 2.6-4.0 cm ; spathe blade oblong-lanceolate, ca. 3 cm wide; spadix unisexual. 
        44. A. saxatile Buchet 
1. Spathe throat margin auriculate. 
    9. Leaves 2; leaflets 9; oblanceolate, 10-25 x 2.5-6.0 cm; spathe throat margin semiorbiculate to auriculate; lower appendix sparsely covered with sterile flowers. 
      46. A. hunanense Hand.-Mazz. 
    9. Leaf 1. 
      10. Leaflets 13-19, oblanceolate; spathe throat margin with long free, elliptic "auricles" 2-3 x 1.0-1.5 cm; spathe blade contracted at base, ovate. 
        48. A. auriculatum Buchet 
      10. Leaflets 7; oblong-elliptic; spathe throat margin with rounded auricles to 1 cm wide, not free; spathe blade deltate-ovate. 
        47. A. cordatum N.E. Br. 


Sect. 7 Dochafa 

Single species 
    49. A. flavum (Forssk.) Scho 


Sect. 8 Flagellarisaema 

Two species, one in China 

50. A. aridarum H. Li 


Sect. 9 Decipientia 

1. Spathe [tube] of different colors, blade purple; appendix glabrous; leaflets 7 (-5) 
    51. A. decipiens 
1. Spathe yellowish green, yellow or reddish, with dark purple or black spots; appendix dark purple with black spots, upper parts or apex with fleshy, acute or linear aculei, erect; leaflets 3-5 
    52. A rhizomatosum C. Fische 


Sect. 10 Arisaema 

1. Rhizome cylindric; leaflets 5; spathe blade purple; dark purple punctate, tube greenish white to white; appendix thin, cylindric or long-fusiform, below with numerous 3-4 mm long, sterile flowers. 
    53. A. hainanense H. Li, et al. 
1. Tuber globose or depressed-globose. 
    2. Spathe throat margins without auricles. 
      3. Appendix sessile, with sterile flowers at base; leaflets more than 7. 
        4. Appendix 3-7 cm long, 1.5 mm thick, suddenly expanded into conoid or clavate apex that is 3-5 (-10) x 2-3 (-5) mm, apex densely papillose 
          54. A. clavatum Buchet 
        4. Appendix long-cylindric, 7 cm long, 5-7 mm thick at mid and upper parts, glabrous 
          55. A. du-bois-reymondiae Engl. 
      3. Appendix conspicuously stipitate, truncate at base, without sterile flowers. 
        5. Leaflets numerous (5-14), linear-lanceolate, lanceolate, long-elliptic to obovate; appendix thinner, 3.5 cm long, 2-4 mm thick, stipe 4-5 mm long. 
          56. A. angustatum var. peninsulae (Nakai) Nakai 
        5. Leaflets 5 (-3), rarely 7. 
          6. Leaves 2; appendix 2.2-5.7 cm long, lower part thickened, expanded, apex obtuse, sometimes nearly globose, 0.5-1.0 cm thick. 
            7. Leaflets 5. 
              8. Leaflets entire. 
                58a. A. sikokianum var. sikokianum Fr. & Sav. 
              8. Leaflets serrate. 
                58b. A. sikokianum var. serratum (Mak.) W. Hand.-Mazz. 
            7. Leaflets 7. 
              58c. A. sikokianum var. henryanum (Engl.) H. Li 
          6. Leaf 1. 
            9. Leaflets entire. 
              57a. A. amurense var. amurense Maxim. 
            9. Leaflets serrulate. 
              57b. A. amurense var. serratum Maxim. Nakai 
    2. Spathe throat margin with conspicuous auricles. 
      10. Leaves pedatisect; spathe throat margin conspicuously recurved, slightly auriculate. 
        11. Appendix sessile, attenuate to base, cylindric, 2.5-3.5 cm x 2-3 mm; leaflets usually 7; ellipti-lanceolate 
          59. A. meleagris Buchet 
        11. Appendix conspicuously stipitate; base thickened, truncate; leaves 2, leaflets 5-17. 
          12. Upper appendix clavate, rugose; spathe blade shortly acuminate; leaflets serrate. 
            62. A. serratum (Thunb.) Sc 
          12. Upper appendix not expanded, glabrous; spathe blade long-acuminate; leaflets entire. 
            61. A. japonicum Bl. 
      10. Leaves palmatisect, leaflets 5-7, lateral leaflets unequal at base, auriculate outside; appendix stipitate, base truncate, 2.0-7.5 cm x 5-6 mm. 
        60. A. nepenthoides (Wall.) Mart. 


Sect. 11 Tenuipistillata 

1. Tuber globose. 
    2. Spathe green, without free auricles. 
    3. Spathe blade shorter than tube, deltate; leaflets narrow-lanceolate, 2-7 cm x 4-10 mm, sinuate; appendix erect, 2.5 cm long. 
      63. A. brevispathum Buchet 
    3. Spathe blade longer or nearly equalling tube, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. 
      4. Spathe throat margin oblique or slightly recurved; leaflets acuminate at apex, long-caudate. 
        5. Appendix exserted from spathe throat, upper part often suddenly recurved. 
          64. A. jacquemontii Bl. 
        5. Appendix included in spathe throat, cylindric, erect. 
          65. A. wardii Marq. 
      4. Spathe throat margin long-auriculate; leaflet apices with cauda 6 cm long. 
        66. A. soulei Buchet 
    2. Spathe violet-purple, throat margin free-auriculate, auricles oblong, ca. 1 cm x 3 mm, patent. 
      67. A. hungyaense H. Li 
1. Rhizome short; leaflets 7; spathe blade violet-purple, throat margin rounded to narrowly auriculate; appendix erect, cylindric, thin-stipitate. 
    68. A. shimiense H. Li 


Sect. 12 Exappendiculata 

Single species. 
    69. A. exappendiculatum Ha. 


Sect. 13 Sinarisaema 

1. Spathe throat margin entire. 
    2. Appendix apex glabrous. 
    3. Leaflets 14, undulate-margined; appendix thick-clavate, narrowed to base, upper part to 1 cm thick. 
      70. A. undulatum Krause 
    3. Leaflets entire. 
      4. Leaves 2. 
        5. Leaflets 9, oblanceolate; spathe purple with white striae, blade with linear cauda to 12 cm long; appendix thin, 7 cm x 1 mm. 
          71. A. oblanceolatum Kitamura 
        5. Leaflets 11, linear-lanceolate; spathe green with white striae, blade with linear cauda 4.0-4.5 cm x 5-6 mm, female appendix with numerous sterile flowers. 
          72. A. biradiatifoliatum Kitamura 
      4. Leaf 1. 
        6. Petiole longer than leaf blade; appendix more or less with sterile flowers. 
          7. Spathe green with white striae; leaflets 7-13. 
            8. Appendix thin, 4-5 cm x 1 mm, slightly recurved, sparsely covered with sterile flowers below. 
              73. A. formosanum Hayata 
            8. Appendix thicker, 5-6 cm x 2-4 mm, middle and lower parts with obtuse sterile flowers to 7 mm long. 
              74. A. kelung-insulare Hay. 
          7. Spathe green or purple, with or without white striae; appendix narrowed toward base and apex, 2-4 cm long, 2.5-5.0 mm thick in middle, lower part with sterile flowers; leaflets few or more. 
            75. A. erubescens (Wall.) Schott 
        6. Petiole shorter than blade; leaflets 13, 30 x 6-7 (-10) cm. 
          76. A. brevipes Engl. 
    2. Appendix apex ciliate or rugose. 
      9. Appendix clavate, stipitate, 2.2-6.0 cm x 5-9 mm, apex densely echinate for more than 0.7 mm. 
        78. A. echinatum (Wall.) Schott 
      9. Appendix thin-cylindric, sessile, 2-4 mm thick, apex rugose, lower part with numerous sterile flowers. 
        77. A. concinnum Schott 

1. Spathe throat margin oblique-truncate, ciliate, blade violet-purple with greenish white striae that nearly reach the blade margin. 
    79. A. ciliatum H Li 

Species Arisaematis Incertae Sedis 
    80. A. silvestrii Pamp. (Hubei) 
    80. A. nantciangense Pamp. (Hubei) 
    80. A. zanlanscianense Pamp. (Hubei) 

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