Epipremnum pinnatum (L.)
Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. in Engl., Pflanzenr.
37 (IV.23B) (1908) 60 -- Pothos pinnatus L., Sp. Pl., ed.
2 (1763) 1374 (pinnata) -- Monstera pinnata (L.)
Schott, Wien. Zeit. Kunst, Literatur, Theater, Mode, 4th Quartal
(127) (1830) 1028. -- Scindapsus pinnatus (L.)Schott in Schott
& Endlicher, Melet. Bot. (1832) 21. -- Rhaphidophora pinnata
(L.) Schott, Prod. Syst. Aroid. (1860) 385. -- Type: Appendix laciniata
Rumph., Herb. Amb. 5 (1747) 489, t.183, f.2.Pothos pinnatifidus
(pinnatifida) Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1 (1832) 437. -- Monstera
pinnatifida (Roxb.) Schott, Wien. Zeit. Kunst, Literatur, Theater,
Mode, 4th Quartal (127) (1830) 1028. -- Scindapsus pinnatifidus
(Roxb.) Schott in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. (1832) 21
(1832). -- Rhaphidophora pinnatifida (Roxb.) Schott, Prod.
Syst. Aroid. (1860): 384 -- Type: Cultivated Calcutta Botanic Garden
(no specimen traced).Pothos caudatus Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1 (1820):
476 (caudata) -- Monstera caudata (Roxb.) Schott,
Wien. Zeit. Kunst, Literatur, Theater, Mode, 4th Quartal (127) (1830):
1028 -- Scindapsus caudatus (Roxb.) Schott & Endlicher,
Melet. Bot. (1832): 21 -- Rhaphidophora caudata (Roxb.) Schott,
Prodr. Syst. Aroid. (1860): 382 -- Type: Cultivated Calcutta Bot.
Gard. From specimens collected on Penang.Scindapsus forsteri Endl.,
Ann. Weiner. Mus. Naturgesch. 1 (1836) 161 Type: ****.Scindapsus
dilaceratus C. Koch & Sello, Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Berol.
App., App. (1853) 5. -- Monstera dilacerata (C. Koch &
Sello) C. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. App. (1855) 5. -- Tornelia
dilacerata (C. Koch & Sello) Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.
(1860) 356. -- Rhaphidophora dilacerata(C. Koch & Sello)
C. Koch, Gartenflora 5 (1864) ****. Type: Cultivated Berlin
Botanic Garden (B holo; K iso), synons. nov.Epipremnum mirabile
Schott, Bonplandia 5 (1857) 45. -- Type: Schott, Gen. Aroid. (1858)
t.79.Rhaphidophora wallichii Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.
(1860) 383. Type: Myanmar, Attran, Wallich 4437A (K holo;
LE iso).Epipremnum elegans Engl., Bull. Soc. Tosc. di Ort.
4 (1879) 269. -- Types: Papua New Guinea, Soron, June 1872, Beccari
PP 472 (FI syn; erroneously cited as PP 442 in protologue); Indonesia,
Sulawesi Tengara, SE from Lepo-Lepo towards Kendari, July 1874,
Beccari PS 46 (FI syn). Epipremnum crassifolium Engl., Bot.
Jahrb. 25 (1898) 12. -- Rhaphidophora crassifolia (Engl.)
Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 1 (1920): 382, comb. illeg.
non R. crassifolia Hook.f., 1893 -- Rhaphidophora rosenburghii Furtado,
Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 8 (1935): 8. -- Type: cultivated Bogor
Botanic Garden 1896, Engler 4006 (B holo; B (spirit) iso), synons.
nov. = MONSTERAEpipremnum mirabile Schott f. multisectum
Engl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (1898) 12. -- Epipremnum pinnatum
(L.) Engl. f. multisectum (Engl.) Engl. in Engl., Pflanzenr.
37 (IV.23B) (1908) 63. -- Type: cultivated Bogor Botanic Garden
1896, Engler s.n. (B holo).Rhaphidophora merrillii Engl.,
Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37 (1905) 115. -- Types: Philippines: Mindanao,
Davao, Mar. 1904, Copeland PNH 335 (B syn; K, PNH isosyn);
Philippines: Luzon, La Union, Bauang, Feb. 1904, Elmer PNH 5539
(B syn; K!, PNH isosyn). As explained elsewhere in this paper,
the Philippine populations of E. pinnatum require a separate
study to resolve their status. Given the varied nature of the syntypes
cited by Engler, no attempt at lectotypification will be made here.Epipremnum
merrillii Engl. & K. Krause in Engl., Pflanzenr. 37 (IV.23B)
(1908) 137. --Type: Philippines, Luzon, Zambales, Jan. 1907, Curran
BS 5883 (B holo; PNH iso).Epipremnum angustilobum K.
Krause, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45 (1911) 659. -- Type: Philippines,Luzon,
Benguet, Sablang, Nov.--Dec. 1910, Fenix 12587 (B holo; PNH
iso).Epipremnum elegans Engl. fma. ternatensis Alderw., Bull.
Jard. Bot. Buit. ser.3, 4 (1922): 169. -- Type: Indonesia, Maluku.
Pulau Ternate, Kota Baru (Baroe), 13 Oct. 1920, Beguin
939 (BO holo)[Epipremnum glaucicephalum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp.
Bot. 10(133): 3620 (1938). Voucher: Sorsogon, Irosin, Mt Bulusan,
Nov. 1915, Elmer 15135 (BM, K, MO, P, PNH), nom. inval.,descr.
Large root-climber to 15 m. Pre-adult plant usually forming modest
terrestrial colonies. Adult plant with stem 5--40 mm diam., internodes
2--25 cm long, separated by quite prominent leaf scars, though these
often obscured by prophyll, cataphyll and petiolar sheath fibre,
stems lustrous green with prominent irregular longitudinal whitish
crests, older stems with distinctive matt to sub-lustrous pale brown
papery epidermis, flowering stems often with the terminal portion
torn away from climbing substrate and ± plagiotropic. Clasping
roots dense, feeding roots rather uncommon, usually strongly adherent
to substrate, more rarely free, both root types pubescent, mid-
to dark brown, growing tip pale brown-yellow, feeding roots later
becoming prominently lenticellate. Cataphylls and prophylls soon
drying and then degrading to prominent netted sheaths, these ±
long-persistent and ± densely clothing upper stem before
eventually decaying (but see Hay, 1990, pl. Xia). Foliage leaves
somewhat scattered on lower stem, becoming somewhat clustered distally.
Petiole 19.5--60 cm x 3--13 mm, canaliculate, smooth, dark green,
air-drying mid- to dark brown and longitudinally sulcate; apical
geniculum 16--70 x 3--5 mm, smooth, basal geniculum 3--7 x 1--1.5
cm, both genicula greater in diameter than petiole, drying shrunken
to less than petiole diameter, dark and often with many lamellae-like
ridges; petiolar sheath extending to half way along the apical geniculum,
at first membranaceous, soon drying chartaceous, then disintegrating
into untidy partially netted fibres, later falling to leave a ±
smooth, mid-brown scar; lamina 10--93 x 5--60 cm, regularly pinnatifid
to (rarely) entire, ovate to oblong-elliptic in outline, sub-membranaceous,
apex acute to acuminate, base rounded to slightly cordate, divisions
pinnatifid to pinnatisect, rarely midrib ± naked at sinus;
pinnae 1.2--6.5 cm wide, apex truncate to acute, terminal pinna
weakly sinuous, many individuals with minute to somewhat well developed
pellucid dots especially adjacent to the midrib in leaves just beginning
to display pinnae, pellucid dots often perforating and enlarging,
sometimes extending to lamina margin (then fenestrations often additional
to fully developed pinnae), lamina lustrous dark green, rarely slightly
to intensely blue-green and glaucous above, paler beneath, pinnae
each with 1 (rarely more except for the terminal pinna) compound
primary lateral vein and several to rather many interprimary veins,
these diverging from midrib at c. 75°, individual elements of
the compound vein diverging at c. 10° from various points along
the pinna, the compound vein becoming progressively finer towards
the pinna tip, interprimary and secondary venation mostly remaining
sub-parallel to compound primary vein, some weaker elements further
dividing and becoming sub-reticulate, all higher order venation
conspicuously reticulate, midrib impressed above, very prominently
raised beneath, lower order venation slightly impressed to almost
flush above, variously raised beneath, higher order venation flush
above, flush or nearly so beneath in fresh material but raised and
rather conspicuous in dried specimens. Inflorescence solitary, more
rarely rarely two or more together, first inflorescence subtended
by a usually fully developed foliage leaf and a very swiftly disintegrating
cataphyll, at anthesis ± naked to partially or almost completely
obscured by netted and sheet-like fibres. Peduncle 5.5--21.5 cm
x 4--10 mm, stout, terete, pale green. Spathe canoe-shaped, stoutly
attenuate to 15 mm, opening almost flat at anthesis, 7--23.5 x 3-
15 cm when pressed flat, exterior green, later dull greenish yellow
to mid-green, interior dull yellow or pale green (reported as white
by some collectors) at anthesis, air-drying dark brown, no detectable
odour when fresh. Spadix 8.5--25 x 1.1--3.5 cm, sessile, cylindrical,
bluntly tapering towards the apex, base slightly obliquely inserted,
white when young, glaucous grey-green to greenish cream, dark yellow
to green or greenish white at anthesis, air-drying almost black.
Flowers 3--7 mm diam.; stamens 4; filaments 5 x 1 mm; anthers narrowly
ellipsoid, 1.5--2 x 0.75--1 mm; ovary 4--12 x 2--7 mm, cylindrical,
basal part slightly compressed; ovules 2--3; stylar region 3--7
x 1.5--4 mm, trapezoid, rather robust, apex flattened, margins somewhat
raised in dry material; stigma linear, 2--6 x 0.1--0.5 mm, longitudinal.
Fruit mid-green (prominently glaucous in Kostermans 21806, L!),
stylar region greatly enlarged, ovary cavity with seeds embedded
in sticky orange-red pulp; Seeds 4.5 x 3.5 mm, pale to mid-brown.
Bangladesh, India (Andaman Islands), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam,
Laos (?), China (Hainan), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan (Ryukyu Islands,
Ogasawara Gunto [Bonin Islands]), Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak),
Singapore, Indonesia (Java, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Sumatra),
Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, New Guinea,
Australia (Queensland), Marshall Islands, Belau Islands, Fiji, Tonga,
Cook Islands, Western Samoa.
Habitat - Primary
and secondary dense to open lowland to upper hill rain and monsoonal
forest, weeds of rubber plantation, growing occasionally on rocks
and in coastal forest, on a variety of substrate including granite,
andesite and limestone. 1--1600m.
Notes - 1. Epipremnum
pinnatum is a widespread and variable species; hence its extensive
Malesian synonymy. However, there are several elements which, given
more intensive study, might warrant taxonomic recognition. In particular
various of these elements from the Philippines seem to differ by,
e.g. consistently larger stature and pinnatisect leaf division.
Current herbarium material is inadequate to resolve these plants
status and more field observations are needed.
2. Sterile herbarium material lacking the pre-adult stage may prove
difficult to distinguish from the complex of taxa centred on Rhaphidophora
korthalsii Schott. Mature leaves of typical R.
korthalsii almost always have more than one primary lateral
vein per pinna. The stems of R. korthalsii lack the prominent
irregular whitish longitudinal crests and older stems the distinctive
matt to sub-lustrous pale brown papery epidermis typical of E.
pinnatum. The feeding roots of R. korthalsii are prominently
scaly while those of E. pinnatum are lenticellate-corky.
The pre-adult stage of R. korthalsii is a shingle climber
with oblong-elliptic to ovate, slightly falcate upwards pointing
leaves overlapping in the manner of roof tiles.
3. Fertile material of R. korthalsii and E. pinnatum
is readily separated by the shape of the style apex (round to oval
versus trapezoid) and the shape and orientation of the stigma (punctiform
and circumferential versus linear and longitudinal) and, if fruits
are mature, by seed characters. Epipremnum pinnatum has fruits with
two large, strongly curved seeds with a bony and ornamented testa.
The fruits of R. korthalsii each contain many small ellipsoid seeds
with a brittle, smooth testa.
4. Epipremnum pinnatum also resembles Rhaphidophora tetrasperma,
a species restricted to the northern Malay Peninsular (Perak, Kelantan)
and the extreme south of Peninsular Thailand (Naratiwhat). Rhaphidophora
tetrasperma has swiftly falling prophylls, cataphylls, and petiolar
sheaths (e.g. clean stems), a shingling juvenile stage
and punctiform, circumferential stigmas.
5. Confusion may occur with between E. pinnatum and sterile
Amydrium magnificum and A. zippelianum. The often
quoted difference between Epipremnum and Amydrium,
that of reticulate versus parallel-pinnate higher order venation,
is really a question of degrees of difference since both E. pinnatum
and Amydrium have essentially the same venation patterns
(parallel primary and reticulate higher veins). However, both A.
magnificum and A. zippelianum have one primary lateral vein and
two prominent interprimary veins (one on each side) per pinna; E.
pinnatum has one primary lateral vein per pinna and the interpriamries
are not particularly conspicuous. The leaflet tips of the Amydrium
species are acute to acuminate, those of E. pinnatum truncate
with the distal margin extended into a fragile thread of tissue.
A further distinguishing feature concerns the petiolar sheath. Epipremnum
pinnatum has the sheath extending to half way along the apical
geniculum while in both the Amydrium the sheath only reaches
to the top of the basal geniculum, the remainder of the petiole
being terete with two sharply defined low keels running its length
to merge with the base of the leaf lamina.
6. Croat & Grayum (1987) discussed Monstera dilacerata (C. Koch
& Sello) C. Koch [syn. Scindapsus dilaceratus C. Koch
& Sello, Tornelia dilacerata (C. Koch & Sello) Schott],
a name applied by Madison (1977) to a number of different pinnatifid-leaved
Monstera species (fide Croat & Grayum pers. comm.), and
concluded that since the type specimen of the basionym (Scindapsus
dilaceratus), deposited in Berlin, is missing and presumed lost,
its true identity would probably remain unknown. However, N.E. Brown
prepared a drawing of the type (K!) that shows it to be an exact
match for the pre-adult stage of E. pinnatum, even to the
pellucid dots next to the midrib. Further, on a copy (K!) of an
article by Brown (1882) dealing with E. mirabile (= E.
pinnatum) there is a note in the margin adjacent to the discussion
of Monstera dilacerata, in Browns hand and dated April
1885, stating I now believe that Monstera dilacerata,
Koch is identified with Epipremnum mirabile Schott. Grayum
(pers comm.) reports a similar note, also in Browns hand,
on a duplicate of E. pinnatum in MO. Scindapsus dilaceratus
and its derived names are here added to the synonymy of the earlier
7. Rhaphidophora lacera Hassk., occasionally cited as synonymous
with E. pinnatum is referable to Rhaphidophora pertusa
(Roxb.) Schott, a species endemic to southern India and Sri Lanka
(see Nicolson, 1988 & Hay, 1993 for discussion.)
8. Maliwanag (111, PNH!) notes that E. pinnatum is used to
blacken the teeth.