Hapaline benthamiana Schott,
Aroid. 44, t.44 (1858); Gagnepain in Lecomte (ed.), Fl. Gŗn. l'Indo-Chine
6: 1131-1132 (1942); Hu in Dansk. Bot. Ark. 23: 426-427 (1968).
Type: Burma, Wallich 1955 (holotype K!). Hapale benthamiana
Schott in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 85 (1857), in syn., nom. rejic.
(see Nicolson 1981, Eichler et al. 1984).
Slender, tuberous, deciduous
perennial herb up to 30 cm high. Stem: tuber globose to compressed
globose, 5 - 12 x 4 - 7 mm; stolon 2 - 6.5 cm x 2 - 3 mm, sparsely
to densely clothed with numerous papery cataphylls. Roots c. 0.33
- 1 mm in diam. Leaf: prophyll narrowly triangular, up to 6 cm x
15 mm, acute to attenuate; cataphyll linear to oblong-triangular,
up to 11 cm x 9 mm, acute to rounded; petiole 4 - 30 cm x 0.5 -
3 mm; leaf blade variably sagittate, lamina occasionally slightly
constricted at the junction of the anterior and posterior lobes,
5.5 - 17 x 1.5 - 8.5 cm, margins smooth to slightly crispulate,
apex attenuate-acuminate to attenuate, posterior lobes subacute
to slightly rounded, divergent. Inflorescence: emerging with or
after the leaves, 1 - 3 together; peduncle 9 - 17 cm x 0.5 - 1 mm;
spathe 4 - 8.7 cm long; spathe limb elliptic, 2.5 - 6.5 cm x 4 -
11 mm, apex acute, minutely apiculate, base long-decurrent into
lower spathe; lower spathe margins clasping, 1.5 - 3.3 cm x 2 mm;
spadix 3 - 6 cm x 1.5 - 1.75 mm, free portion 2.8 - 5.5 cm, cylindric,
tapering apically into an appendix composed of free synandrodes.
Flowers: synandria elogate-elliptic in plan view, 5 - 11 x 1 - 1.5
mm; ovaries ovoid, 2 x 1.20 mm, c. 7 in 2 staggered rows; stigma
capitate, c. 0.33 mm in diam; style c. 0.5 mm long. Infructescence:
partially to completely enclosed by the persistent lower spathe,
few to several-berried; berries ellipsoid to subglobose, 4 - 6 mm
in diam., stigmatic remains persistent, slightly prominent. (Fig.
Burma, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam. BURMA. Banks of the Attran river,
May 1827, Wallich 1995 (holotype K!). LAOS. Saravan: 5 km from Khong,
1875-1877, Harmand s.n. (BM!, K!). THAILAND. Chaiyaphum: Phu-Landca
Forest Reserve, 1981, Vamanonda 2 (K spirit 46482!). Chanthaburi:
Koh Chang, Klong Majum, 2 April 1959, SĀrensen, Larsen & Hansen
7126a (C!); Koh Chang, Klong Majum, 2 April 1959, SĀrensen, Larsen
& Hansen 7128 (C!); Krat, 29 Mar. 1925, Kerr 22 (number partially
missing and incorrect, see Jacobs 1962) (K!). Chiangmai: Doi Suthep,
1 May 1929, Kerr 614 (K!); summit of Doi Muang Awn, Maxwell 93-320
(CMU!); Doi Suthep, 14 May 1958, SĀrensen, Larsen & Hansen 3424
(C!); Doi Inthanon National Park, 21 July 1988, Phengklai et al.
6723 (BKF!); Doi Chiang Dao, 6 May 1956, Phloenchit 1204 (BKF 15611!);
Doi Inthanon, 10 May 1959, SĀrensen, Larsen & Hansen 3359 (BKF 3359!,
C!, L!); Wang Tao, 20 May 1958, SĀrensen, Larsen & Hansen 3548 (C!).
Lampang: Ngao, 8 May 1954, Amnaj 25 (BKF 11278!). Lamphun: Doi Kuhn
Dahn N.P., Mah Meun Station, 3 June 1993, Maxwell 93-533 (CMU!);
Doi Kuhn Dahn N.P., trail to Mah Meun Station, 28 June 1993, Maxwell
93-719 (CMU!). Loei: Phu Kradung, 6 May 1951, Smitinand & Phloenchit
291 (BKF 5116!). Nakhon Panom, Tat Panorn, 11 May 1932, Kerr 21403
(K!, L!). Ratchaburi: Sai Yok, 1 July 1963, Larsen et al. 10378
(C!). Tak: Larn Sarng National Park, c. 17Á20'N, 98Á50'E, 29 May
1973, Geesink, Phanichapol & Santisuk 5515 (K!, L!). VIETNAM. Exped.
of Dr Harmand d'Indo-Chine, 1875-1877, Glaziou s.n. (BM!, K!).
Bangkok from a plant collected in Saraburi at Muak Lek, inflorescence
24 March 1919, leaves 8 June 1919, Kerr 17574 (K!); Cult. Bangkok,
no further data, 5 June 1930, Kerr s.n. (K!).
moist to degraded mixed deciduous forest or bamboo forest, on granitic
stone or limestone; 60-1200 m. Hapaline benthamiana is common
throughout Thailand and extends into Burma, Laos and Vietnam. It
often occurs as extensive colonies as a result of the long stolons,
a feature first noted in literature by Hu (1968). Leaf shape is
quite variable and intergrades to some extent with H. brownii. However,
the thinner-textured leaves of H. benthamiana never have
rounded, overlapping posterior lobes. Hapaline
from China (Yunnan) but now known to occur in Burma, is probably
most closely related to H. benthamiana. It differs by characters
of leaf blade and ovary shape and by its greater stature. Two of
the collections cited (Geesink et al. 5515 and Maxwell 93-719) have
leaves with pale green blotches.