22. Syngonium hoffmannii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8:178. 1858. TYPE: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Candelaria, Alto de Sta. Cruz (presumably the modern day Can-delaria southeast of San Ramon and Palmares at ca. 1000 m) Hoffmann s.n. (not seen) (Schott drawing of the Hoffmann collections, Schott Aroideae #3212 was seen).
Porphyrospatha hoffmannii (Schott) Engler in A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 2:291. 1879.

Juvenile plants with glaucous stems; internodes 1-4 cm long, 3-6 mm diam.;
petioles sheathed 1/2-2/3 their length; blades sagittate, 4-13 cm long, medium green or with grayish white midrib and primary lateral veins (fide Birdsey, 1955), all
the major veins sunken above, raised beneath, the anterior lobe 4-18 cm long, ovate-deltoid, slightly or not at all constricted at the base, acute to acuminate and apiculate at the apex, the posterior lobes 2.5-9 cm long, acute to acuminate at the apex; intermediate leaves with the lateral lobes only slightly inequilateral or very inequilateral but lacking a conspicuous, protruded auricle. Adult plants with stems sometimes glaucous, usually 1-2 cm wide; internodes weakly sulcate above the petioles, 1.5-10 cm long on flowering branches, olive green, drying brown, flaky, often weakly and rather sparsely muricate; petioles sometimes glaucous, paler than the stems, 12-33 cm long, sheathed 2/3-4/5 their length, subterete above the sheath, somewhat flattened laterally, sharply to bluntly 1-ribbed adaxially;
blades trisect (or rarely sub-5-sect); leaflets free to confluent, 9-28 cm long, 3.5-11 cm wide, the upper surface medium green, semiglossy, the lower surface only slightly paler; median leaflet oblong-elliptic to ovate-oblong or lanceolate, equal or more frequently unequal, acuminate at the apex, obtuse to acute or attenuate at the base; lateral leaflets 6-24 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, very unequal, acute on the inner margin at the base, usually prominently auriculate on the outer margin at the base, the auricles directed downward and in line with the leaflet or directed somewhat outward, usually ± parallel with the petiole, strongly to not at all pinched off from the leaflet (rarely appearing as another leaflet); primary lateral veins 5-10 pairs, sunken on the upper surface, raised beneath, the minor veins obscure on the upper surface.
Inflorescences usually 1-3 (less frequently to 4 in Panama) per axil; peduncles sometimes glaucous (commonly glaucous at higher elevations), 3-9 cm long and erect at anthesis, 6-13 cm long and pendent in fruit;
spathe tube broadly ovoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, dark green outside, becoming tinged with purple in age, red to violet purple within, 4-4.5 cm long, 2-2.5 cm diam.;
spathe blade broadly ovate, greenish white to white, cuspidate at the apex, 5.5-8 cm long, 4.8-5.5 cm wide; pistillate portion of the spadix greenish, 2-2.5 cm long, tapered gradually toward the apex, 1.2-1.6 cm diam., the flowers 2-carpel-late, the stigma 2-lobed, circular, the syncarp 3-4 mm diam. at the apex; staminate portion of the spadix white, 5.5-9 cm long, 1.4-1.7 cm diam., broadest at about the middle, only slightly constricted at the point of merger with the sterile staminate flowers, then slightly broader toward the base, the fertile staminate flowers regularly to irregularly 4-lobed, the sterile staminate flowers slightly larger, irregular, closely compacted.
Infructescences usually oblong-ellipsoid (sometimes ellipsoid), green heavily tinged with purple or sometimes yellowish (fide herbarium labels), 6-10 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide; syncarp white, to 5.5 cm long and 3.5 cm diameter. Figs. 48, 49, 53.
DISTRIBUTION: Syngonium hoffmannii ranges from northern Costa Rica to Cerro Pirre in eastern Panama. It usually occurs in lower montane rain forest but is also frequent in premontane rain forest and tropical wet forest. It has also been collected, though much less frequently, in premontane wet forest.
The species is an extremely variable one and might eventually prove to consist of more than one element. Altitudinal range is particularly great ranging from 300 m to 1800 m. The greatest differences are exhibited in the degree of lobing of the lateral leaflets, in the shape and coloration of the infruetescences, and in the degree to which petioles and inflorescences are glaucous. More Costa Rican and Panamanian collections at higher elevations were reported to have glaucous parts.
The species might be confused in Costa Rica with S. wendlandii which has similar leaves. See that species for a discussion of the differences.
Flowers have been found in March, May, and December. Fruits are most common from July to September but have been seen immature from December to August.

COSTA RICA: ALAJUELA: NNE of Bijagua, Burger & Baker 9850, Croat 36268, 36270, 36515 (MO); NW of Zarcero, Croat 43532, 43575, 43627 (MO). CARTAGO: E of Cachi, Croat 47084 (MO);
Between town ofJicotea and Rio Pacuare, Croat 36558 (MO); SE of Platanillo, Croat 36731 (MO). HEREDIA: Near Cariblaneo, Croat 35653 (MO); San Jose de la Montana, Echeverria 4077 (F); N of Vara Blanca, Croat 35594, 35619 (MO). PUNTARENAS: N of La Union, Croat 26686 (MO); Monte-verde, Jimenei s.n. (MO). SAN JOSE: Santa Maria de Dota, Standley 42097, Standley & Valeria 43322 (US).
PANAMA: CHIRIQUI': Vicinity ofCerro Colorado and Escopeta, Croat 33508, 48441 (MO); Fortuna Dam Site, Croat 48669, 48722, 48804, 49885, 50025 (MO); Las Lagunas near Volcan, Folsom & Page 5979 (MO); Monte Rey above Boquete, Croat et al. 15667 (MO). COCLE: La Mesa above El Valle de Anton, Croat 3734IA (MO); Alto Calvario above El Cope, Croat 49201, 49207 (MO). COLON: E of Santa Rita Ridge, Correa & Dressier 637 (SCZ), Croat 13893, 34351 (MO). DARIEN: Summit of Cerro Pirre, Gentry & Clewell 7027 (MO); Vicinity Rio Tuquesa, Croat 27180 (MO). HERRERA: Above Chepo de las Minas, Folsom, Channell & Small 7009 (MO). PANAMA: Cerro Azul, Croat 17268 (MO), Dwyer4100 (MO), Tyson & Blum 4100 (SCZ); Cerro Campana, Croat 12075, 14226, 25251. 35948, 35962, Porter et al. 4215 (MO), 4262 (MO, US); Vicinity Cerro Jefe, Croat 35921 (MO), Lewis et al. 226 (F, GH, K, MO, NY, UC, US), Tyson et al. 3354 (SCZ); Wilbur et al. 15572 (MO); El Llano-Carti Road, Croat 33776, 34805A, Mori & Kallunki 4092 (MO); Vicinity Finca Neptuno, Nee 11534 (MO); Vicinity of La Eneida, Luteyn & Kennedy 1755 (DUKE, MO). VERAGUAS: Between Alto Piedra and Calovebra, Croat 27391 (MO); N slope of Cerro Alto Higo (El Montoso), Hammel 4267 (MO); Along Rio Primero Braso, Croat 25970, Liesner 827 (MO); Vicinity of Santa Fe and Rio Calovebra, Croat & Folsom 33986, Croat 34195, 34231, 48888, 48889 (MO); Beyond Tres Brazos River, Croat 25647 (MO).