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  From Peru
From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.20 at 19:19:47(9244)
Hi everybody in the list, let me introduce, my name is Jorge Ling?n and I'm
very interested in the Araceae family. Actually I'm working my thesis
project to know the Araceae of Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen
(Pasco-Peru), with some annotations about pollinators of these impressive
I was at the peruvian forest (Tambopata-Madre de Dios), in the begining of
this year and I had collected samples of this family. I'm almost finishing
my field report and I have a doubt with a synonymy matter...is Philodendron
krukovii Gleason synonym of Philodendron chanchamayense Engler?
I have another question, maybe you could help me, I'd like to suscribe to
the Aroideana magazine but I don't have a credit card, I considered using a
friend card, but the subscription would be sent to his address and to his
name and not mine, is there any other option? is it possible to send cash
money? I'm very interested in Aroideana subscription I've read some
articles and they're very interesting.
Congratulations for all the list contributors, I'm learning a lot with the
discussions. I've to tell you that here in Peru the "malanga" is known as
"pituca" or "unkucha", depending if it's in the northern or southern (Cusco)
region of Per? respectively. They are really two or three Xanthosoma
species, I'm not sure ... but it is delicious! and I think it is a good
substitute of potato.
Congratulations once again and thanks for your contributions.
Kind regards for each.

Jorge Lingan

From: "Cooper, Susan L." SLCooper at scj.com> on 2002.08.20 at 20:26:48(9245)
Welcome Jorge!
Isn't it fun to learn from each other. You taught us something new on your
very first posting, thank you!

Susan L. Cooper

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.21 at 10:00:29(9248)
Dear Jorge,

Welcome! I`m certain that you will enjoy this list, and hopefully you will
be able to obtain all the Aroideana back-issues that you desire.
The person on this list with the most information to be able to answer your
querry re: the Philodendron question is Dr. Thomas Croat of the Missouri
Bot. Garden, I`m sure that you are familiar with him. He is presently on
a collecting journey to Amazonian Ecuador and due back in the USA sometime
in late Sept., so perhaps you might re-post your question at that time??
Thanks for the local names for the 'malangas' of Peru, there are several
species used as food. Another native name I like is the Mayan ( ? )
'que-ques-qe' of S. Mexico and Central America. It is certainly a good
substitute for potatoes in many cusines!
I hope the list hears a LOT more from you and about the Peruvian aroids you
encounter! Do you have any information on any aroids that occur in the
quebradas in the Talara area of N. coastal Peru? I lived and worked there
for a couple of years, and ther were some areas that could support some
aroid genera in these canyons, especially along the coast driving towards
Punta Sal and Tumbes.

Julius Boos.

From: "Barton, Dr H.J." hjb15 at leicester.ac.uk> on 2002.08.21 at 12:02:12(9250)
Dear Jorge,
I'd like to know more about your research, particularly the work on pollinators of Araceae. Are the pollinators of these plants very specific? For instance, if plants were rapidly moved by humans into a new region/country would other insects be able to take over the role of pollination?


Dr Huw J Barton
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
School of Archaeology and Ancient History
University of Leicester

From: angel151 at earthlink.net> on 2002.08.21 at 16:28:45(9251)

what is WPB?

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.21 at 16:45:25(9252)
'WPB' is West Palm Beach, a town on the East Coast of Central Florida,


From: Betsy Feuerstein ecuador at midsouth.rr.com> on 2002.08.21 at 16:57:26(9253)
My guess is it is....... West Palm Beach

angel151@earthlink.net wrote:

> what is WPB?

From: "Patricia Frank" tricia_frank at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.21 at 17:59:25(9254)
Hi Jorge,

Welcome to the list, we are always pleased to have a new member who shares
our love of this family. We would be very interested in your work in
Peru,please keep us posted.
As the treasurer,let me assure you we have many members who use other
peoples checks and credit cards to join, we do not have a problem keeping
the records sorted. You can join from our web-site at www.aroid.org with
PayPal. In the" Note box" please just list your information that would
appear on an application.

From: "Eduardo Goncalves" edggon at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.21 at 22:51:39(9256)
Hola Jorge,

Greetings from Brazil! That?s great to have someone else from the
southlands in this list. I thought I was the only "talking" South American
Well, I don?t know if Tom has changed the status of this thing in his
last surveys of Peruvian aroids, but Michael Grayum (1996) kept P.
chinchamayense as a good species and lumped P. krukovii as a synonim of P.
guttiferum. I have to confess that is hard to me say the differences between
P. guttiferum and other species like P. rudgeanum, so the picture is a bit
more complex in my opinion. Anyhow, I have never seen something that could
be referred to P. chinchamayense, so I can?t help much more than this. The
type of this material was supposed to be in Berlin, but it wasn?t there when
I visited this herbarium, so maybe Tom has this plant as a loan in MO. Ask
him a photocopy of both types (when he is back from Peru) and you can say by
yourself if they are synonims.

Saludos cordiales,

Eduardo G. Goncalves

From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.22 at 02:33:11(9260)
Hi Julius :
Thanks very much for your welcome, I'm contacting Dr. Thomas Croat,
approximately a year ago, I think he's the one who can help me, I'll wait
for his return from Ecuador.
I don't have any information about aroids in that region, I'll try to look
for some information, as you know this place, can you give me an idea of how
it looks like? here in Per? is not too easy to travel because it's expensive
and I have not too much time because I'll be working until December.
Best regards

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.22 at 16:19:05(9263)
Hola Jorge,

I`m sure that Dr. Croat will be in contact once he returns and is settled
after his long collecting/study trip to Amazonian Ecuador!

Talara is in a very dry region, the only place where one may expect to find
residual populations of any aroids would be in the quebradas to the North of
Talara. They occur mainly along the coast, there is a large one just N.
of Los Organos which I used to be able to drive up, I believe it led to a
border post with Ecuador when I lived in Talara, I don`t know if the road is
still open. There where some water sources and seeps in this area, and a
population of white-tailed deer and even pumas, a friend of mine bought a
kitten from a resident in this quebrada. There are aroids along the rivers
near Tumbes also. If you know of anyone who may be visiting and
collecting in the Tunmbes area in the future please let me know, there is a
Xanthosoma species (wild/silvestre) that we really would like re-collected
when in in bloom, or collected and grown till it blooms, the dry specimen is
a leaf and an infructesence only. I can obtain collecting data for you in
the near future.

Keep writing!


From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.22 at 18:50:36(9264)
Dear Susan:
Thank you very much for your mail, I really didn't think receiving so many
mails answering my first one, of course I'll participate frequently, I'm
very glad to belong to this list, and I'll try to contribute with it.
Thanks to all of you.
Jorge Lingan

From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.22 at 18:58:53(9265)
Dear Dr. Barton : Thanks for your interest in my investigation, I must
comment you that I'm just beginning my work, in this time I'm gathering all
the data to start my investigation.
What I know about this issue is something very general now, I have the idea
that Araceae are pollinated by euglossine bees, trigonid bees, beetles
(Curculionidae, Nitudilidae, Scarabaeidae, Scydmaenidae, Staphylinidae) and
flies (Drosophilidae).
I brought from my last trip specimens of Anthurium gracile, a species that
flowered and fructified at my home ... I live in the other side of the
Cordillera de los Andes from where it natural habitat is. Besides
I have another species of Xanthosoma, (not determined yet) whose first
flowering didn't fructify... I hope this time it does (it will blossom). I
think there could be another insects to pollinize it, at least the species
that are pollinated by flies or bees... some cosmopolite species and maybe
they could be replaced by other species, while the pollinized by beetles or
other insects not well distributed is more difficult. I wait your comments
in this matter.
Truly yours.
Jorge Lingan

From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.22 at 19:01:13(9266)
Dear Tricia :
I'm very glad I received so many messages in and out the list, my mail was
full for a moment, and that makes me very happy, I didn't expect my first
message could have this effect, I'm proud belonging to this enthusiastic
group. We all together with the same interest, our love for the Araceae!!!
Thank you for the Pay Pal information, I'll consider.
Regards to everybody in the list.

From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.22 at 19:04:40(9267)
Dear Eduardo :
Now we are two South Americans in the list... I was just an observer days
ago, and maybe there are more.
Thank you for your suggestion, as soon as I hear Dr. Croat will come to Peru
I'll make my requests by the meanwhile I'm waiting Dr. Croat returns to USA
to ask him for the Grayum work on Philodendron subgenius Pteromischum.
Best regards
Jorge Lingan

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.22 at 23:41:00(9270)
Dear Jorge and Dr. Barton,

I am NOT an 'expert' in this field, but have read and observed quite a bit
on pollination of Araceae, and will try to help w/ a few commnets.
Pollination of the genus Philodendron, Monstera (and Dieffenbachia) are
reported to be pollinated by scarab beetles mainly of the genus
Cyclocephalla and other closely related genera. Many other insects may be
discovered associated with and attracted to the scent of the open flower,
but the actual 'job' of pollination is reported to be by these scarab
beetles. I believe the same genus of scrab also pollinates Xanthosoma and
Caladium, as I collected many beetles of this genus in blooms of Xanthosoma
sps. while I worked in Ecuador, both on the E. and W. side of the Andes.
During the Aroid Symposium held at MOBOT a few years ago, Sue Thompson and
another Gentleman (for the life of me I can not recall his name, sorry!)
gave most interesting talks on this subject, and both cautioned on
assumptions made when insects just happened to be found in association with
a bloom, many slides were shown illustrating this, and the pollen seems to
have evolved to suit a very specific insect. Other insects just take
advantage of an available food source, eating the 'bait' provided by some
genera, in the case of Xanthosoma some of the sterile flowers, others
(non-pollinators) eating and destroying the female flowers, thus actually
perventing seed development. We were shown photos of the damage some
beetles do to the blooms of aroids by burrowing through the spathe tube
limb to reach this rich food 'reward', but they do nothing to assist the
plant in pollination. Lots of close observation will be needed, as in some
cases a VERY specific beetle/insect may be required, for example on Trinidad
MANY Caladiums (mainly C. bicolor) are found blooming in the wild, yet not
once have we discovered a developing infructesence. It is suspected that
this plant may have been introduced to Trinidad by pre-Colombian man and the
specific pollenator is not present. It could be that lots more
observation is needed and a plant in fruit may yet be located. On the
other hand some other aroids do not seem to need a specific pollinator, as
my plants of Urospatha, Dracontium and Dracontioides were pollinated by
insects that occur here in W.P.B., Florida. In some cases no pollination
is required for the plant to produce viable seed, Anthurium gracille and
other closely related species do this with no pollination.
I hope tha above may serve as a 'beginners guide', comments and discussion
are most welcome!!.
Jorge, if you have more than one blooming plant of Xanthosoma,
hand-pollination is easy and seed can be produced by this method.


From: Marc Gibernau gibernau at aurore.cict.fr> on 2002.08.23 at 12:31:45(9273)
Dear Julius, Jorge and Huw and other Aroiders,

About non-pollinators visiting insects, I know that in Philodendron
solimoesense and melinonii, trigona bees visit 2-d inflorescences to
collect pollen and some resin but they do not damage the inflorescence.

I have paper in press in International Journal of Plant Sciences (November)
about gall-maker chalcid wasps that parasite the seeds of Philodendron
solimoesense. Interestingly they lay their eggs when the floral chamber is
open (not through the spathe) and many (several tens) died trapped when the
spathe wrap tightly around the spadix.

More puzzling in French Guiana, Montrichardia arborescens is pollinated by
mainly Cyclocephala colasi (Dynastid, Scarab).
Contrary to Philodendron, Xanthosoma,..., in Montrichardia there are no
sterile flowers, thus no food rewards for the pollinating beetles.
I've observed that the pollinating beetles ate/chewed the upper part of the
female flowers (a few millimeters) without apparently damaging the seeds.

All the best,

Marc Gibernau

From: "Jorge Lingan" jorge_lingan at hotmail.com> on 2002.08.23 at 17:57:48(9276)
Dear Julius :
I've heard Talara is an arid region and I didn't imagine there could be
aroids, nor the existence of deep passes where they can grow.
What you described me is marvelous, I didn't think that there could be that
diversity of fauna. Someday I'll visit those beautiful places, I have some
friends in Piura and I'd like to know this zone!!! I'm sure I'll find
surprises, since it's disconnected of amazonic forests.
As soon as I know somebody will go to collect in Tumbes or Piura, I'll let
you know, don't worry...maybe it's me...LOL there I'll collect your specimen
o Xanthosoma that you wish.

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.24 at 11:28:08(9279)
Dear Jorge,

Yes, the area around Talara is indeed very arid, but about an hour North of
Talara on the road after Los Organos going North there is a quebrada with a
road along its bottom leading inland that might have enough water to support
some aroids, perhaps some Philodendron and Monstera sps., and some seasonal
species such as Xanthosoma and Caladium. There are also wet areas near the
town of Tumbes, along the river.
Piura is also a very dry area on a flat, dry plain, but I remember reading
that there were or are some wetter areas in river passes in the Piura region
where a rare species of guan (a chicken-like bird) still exists, so perhaps
in these slightly wetter areas rare aroids might be discovered! Good
We shall keep in contact.


From: Ricardo Sander rsander at racsa.co.cr> on 2002.08.24 at 15:15:30(9280)
Hi Julius,

I see these rare guans sometimes on the trees around our house. Big black
birds with blue peaks. They are like turkeys and have a hard time flying.
So no wonder there are almost none left. If you can throw a rock you got a

Ricardo Sander

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.25 at 16:25:48(9281)
Dear Ricardo,

I believe the birds you are observing may be the ocellated turkey, only the
second species of turkey (the barn-yard turkey is a domesticated
Mexican/Central American species of 'regular' turkey, about 7 other
sub-species of 'regular' turkeys are discribed from N. America. The
Mexican/Central American ocellated turkey, though closely related to the
'barnyard' turkey, has never been domesticated and is very different! Or
you may be talking about one of the curacaos, a larger blacker group of
birds, still related to turkeys and chickens. The guans I mentioned are
another family, but also distantly related to chickens and turkeys. They
are probably known as 'chacalakas' or soemsuch in your Country based on the
loud early morning/evening calls of the group.


From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.26 at 09:51:47(9286)
Hello again Ricardo,

I was incorrect in my determination of the black birds as turkeys, I am told
(by an expert in Guatemala) that they are in fact Black Guans, Chamaeptes
unicolor! They are rather small birds with a blue 'face'. We live and
Thanks again for your letter.


From: Piabinha at aol.com on 2002.08.26 at 18:53:16(9292)
julius, i don't think turkeys, ocellated or not, occur that far south (costa rica). i think they don't occur south of guatemala and mexico.

in brazil, the big "curassows" are known as mutum (mutuns, plural) and the smaller "guans" are jacu.

tsuh yang CHEN in nyc

From: "Julius Boos" ju-bo at msn.com> on 2002.08.26 at 22:04:16(9293)
Of course you are correct, Tsuh Yang, I was having a 'senior' or just 'too
tired' moment. My friend in Guatemala reminded me that the ocellated
turkey has an extremely limited range in Cen. America as far South as
Guatemala and Belize. Costa Rica is much further South. I corrected
myself yesterday on this L. Sorry!
Nice names! In Tobago the rufous-tailed guans are 'co-cri-co', in Trinidad
the blue-throated piping guan (almost extinct from hunting) is a 'pawi'.
The native names I love are for the jungle rodents in E. Ecuador, from
largest to smallest are--'capiwara'Ępybara, 'guanta'=paca,
'guatusa'=agouti, and 'guatin'= acouchi!! Music to MY ears!
Has your Ulearum recovered??


From: Angel Morales angel151 at earthlink.net> on 2002.08.27 at 15:56:33(9296)
This is a bit off the cuff, but I was wondering if you ever get out into the
Amazon basin proper, and have you ever observed the "Emerale Tree boa" , in
its native habitat?

Angel Morales

From: Piabinha at aol.com on 2002.08.27 at 18:51:37(9299)
hi julius,

this is getting way off topic, but how could i forget to mention... in brazil, turkey (the bird) is "peru."

i love those birds (guans, curassows) and also all those native names. here's one for your collection, murucututu, a native owl.

tsuh yang CHEN in nyc

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