Anthurium Start PageContentsKEY BKEY D


Leaf blades not 3-lobed; dark glandular-punctate on one or both surfaces.

la. Plants slender, scandent with long stems, often hanging from trees; berries translucent white, pale violet, or purple; blades usually much less than 14 cm long. 1b

2a. Internodes 2-21 cm long, not clothed in persistent Cataphylls; leaf blades usually rounded at base; primary lateral veins usually 3-6 per side..........A. tonduzii Engl.

2b. Internodes usually less than 2 cm long, rarely more than 4 cm long, at least the younger stems clothed in persistent, weathering cataphylls; leaf blades usually obtuse to acute at base; primary lateral veins usually numerous.

3a. Flowering spadix purplish, the pistil whitish, noticeably quadrangular, emerging prominently before stamens emerge; spathe persistently erect and more or less parallel to the spadix; berries broadly ovate to obovate, usually acute to apiculate at apex; sea level to 800 m..........A. trinerve Miq.

3b. Flowering spadix greenish, the pistil greenish, round to weakly quadrangular, emerging only after the stamens have emerged; spathe strongly reflexed soon after opening; berries depressed-globose to globose, rounded to flat at apex; sea level to 2,700 m.

4a. Spadix 16-60-flowered, 7-30 mm long at anthesis; blade punctate or not on upper surface, 4-16 cm long..........A. scandens (Aubl.) Engl. ssp. scandens

4b. Spadix 5-12(-16)-flowered, 2-10 mm long at anthesis; blade punctate on upper surface, 2-7.5 cm long..........A. scandens ssp. pusillum Sheffer

1b. Plants usually not at all scandent, mostly with short internodes (moderately long in A. collinsii, A. subrotundum, and A. melaslomatis but with stems erect, mostly terrestrial); berries various; leaves often more than 14 cm long.

5a. Blades more than 15 cm wide and cordate or subcordate at base.

6a. Blades ovate to broadly ovate; the lobes rounded; most basal veins extending to the apex quite removed from the margin..........A. lentii Croat & Baker

6b. Blades ovate-triangular; the lobes usually longer than broad; the uppermost basal vein ex-tending to the apex very near the margin..........A. hornitense Croat

5b. Blades either less than 15 cm wide or not at all subcordate to cordate at base.

7a. Most petioles less than one-third as long as blades.

8a. Leaf blades more than 5 times longer than broad. 8b

9a. Plants erect, the blades erect-spreading, not at all pendent; collective veins promi-nently sunken on the upper surface.

l0a. Blades with the collective veins much more prominently sunken than the pri-mary lateral veins; primary lateral veins scarcely raised on the lower surface; spadix whitish..........A. bakeri Hook. f.

l0b. Blades with the collective vein sunken about equally as the primary lateral veins; primary lateral veins prominently raised on the lower surface..........A. redolens Croat

9b. Plants pendent, the blades dangling usually straight downward from the stem; the collective veins not at all sunken on upper surface.

11a. The largest blades usually less than 3 cm rarely to 4 cm wide, generally less than 50 cm long; berries broader than long (also broader in direction of the axis of spadix)..........A. friedrichsthalii Schott

11b. The largest blades on mature plants more than 4 cm wide, generally more than 50 cm long; berries as long as broad or longer than broad (not broader in direction of the axis of spadix).

12a. Blades oblong-linear, broadest near the middle or below the middle. drying green to yellow-green; the primary veins arising at a 20-40ˇ angle from the midrib; spadix white to grayish white at anthesis, 12-80 cm long, soon coiled into a helicoid spiral; berries reddish, obovoid, weakly beaked at apex, terete in cross-section..........A. wendlingeri G. M. Barroso

12b. Blades narrowly oblanceolate, broadest above the middle, drying con-spicuously blackened; the primary lateral veins arising at a 10-20ˇ angle from the midrib; spadix greenish purple or purplish brown at anthesis. 3-15 cm long, not coiled; berries orange..........A. pendens Croat

8b. Leaf blades less than 5 times longer than wide.

13a. Spadix purplish; collective vein usually to 2 cm from the margin.

14a. Large rosulate epiphyte; stipe elongating to 18 cm; petiole ca. one-tenth as long as blades; primary lateral veins prominently curved.......... A. hacumense Engl.

14b. Leaves not conspicuously rosulate; stipe less than 1 cm long; petiole one-fourth to one-third as long as blade; primary lateral veins straight..........A. curvilaminum Croat

13b. Spadix not purplish, either green, yellow, or white; collective vein usually less than 1.5 cm from the margin.

15a. Peduncle sharply 2-3-sided and usually winged.

16a. Blades broadest at the middle or more often above the middle, lacking a well-developed secondary collective vein, always acute at the base; spadix cylindroid, scarcely tapered, bluntly rounded at apex, smooth, the pistils scarcely emergent at apex; berries lavender white..........A. dwyeri Croat

16b. Blades broadest usually below the middle, usually with a well-developed secondary collective vein, often rounded (or even subcordate) at the base; spadix gradually long tapered, the pistil soon prominently exserted giving the spadix a rough appearance; berries lavender..........A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix Croat

15b. Peduncles neither triangular nor winged.

17a. Peduncle more or less equal to petiole in length.

18a. Both petioles and peduncles usually less than 6 cm long..........A. kallunkiae Croat

18b. Either petioles or peduncles usually more than 15 cm long..........A. pageanum Croat

17b. Peduncle much longer than petiole.

19a. Cataphylls drying more or less intact, not weathering to a mass of fibers; blades stiffly coriaceous, usually narrowly oblong-elliptic; spadix green, becoming violet purple or reddish; berries orange..........A. paludosum Engl.

19b. Cataphylls weathering promptly to a mass of fibers; blades thinner (coriaceous only in A. bicollectivum), mostly oblong-elliptic, to oblanceolate to elliptic or ovate (sometimes narrowly oblong-elliptic in A. fragrantissimum); spadix greenish to yellowish; berries red, white, or yellow-orange (A. bicollectivum).

20a. Stamens remaining exposed after anthesis (rather slow to retract in A. vallense. with cataphylls weathering to reticulate fibers); leaf blades usually oblanceolate (sometimes oblong-elliptic in A. fragrantissimum), drying grayish green, dark brown, or blackish green.

21 a. Blades drying thin, grayish green; the primary lateral veins rarely more than 10 pairs; the stamens weakly exserted on dried specimens giving the spadix a rel-atively coarse appearance; flowering spadix not strong-ly and pleasantly scented; berries white; endemic to the Serrania de Pirre..........A. terryae Standl. & L. 0. Wms.

21b. Blades drying moderately thick, usually very black-ened, primary lateral veins usually more than 12 pairs; the stamens on dried specimens never exserted; flow-ering spadix pleasantly scented during the middle of the day; berries red; restricted to the Central Cordi-llera, Veraguas, Code, Col—n, and Panama Provinces but not known from the Serrania de Pirre..........A. fragrantissimum Croat

20b. Stamens retracted beneath the tepals after anthesis (except for A. vallense retraction is usually prompt resulting in fewer than 4 stamens being exposed at one time for any flower); leaf blades usually drying greenish to greenish brown, never thin and grayish green or conspicuously blackened.

22a. Blades coriaceous, drying very thick, usually with 2 pairs of collective veins on each side of the midrib (at least in the lower one-fourth of the blade); spadix green, long and prominently tapered, berries yellow-orange..........A. bicollectivum Croat

22b. Blades subcoriaceous, drying moderately thin or membranous, usually without a second pair of col-lective veins; spadix short and green or long, becom-ing yellowish but not markedly tapered; berries red or white.

23a. Cataphylls 8-15 cm long, persisting as a con-spicuous reticulum of pale fibers; blades 5-15 cm wide, rarely less than 7 cm wide; spadix yellowish at anthesis..........A. vallense Croat

23b. Cataphylls less than 6 cm long, not forming a conspicuous network of fibers; blades 4-7 cm wide, rarely more than 6 cm wide; spadix pale green at anthesis.

24a. Blades oblong-elliptic, drying moderately thick; the petiole sharply triangular; spadix dark green; the anthers conspicuously exposed on dried specimens; berries red; CoclŽ, Panama, and Colón Provinces..........A. pageanum Croat

24b. Blades oblanceolate, drying membra-nous; the petioles rounded adaxially; spadix pale green, the anthers not exposed on dried specimens; berries white; Serrania de Pirre..........A. terryae Standl. & L. 0. Wms.

7b. Petioles mostly more than one-third as long as blade.

25a. Blades with 2-3 pairs of collective veins, the first (closest to midrib) remote from the margin (ca. one-third the distance from the midrib to the margin), the collective veins interconnected by more or less straight, parallel secondary veins.

26a. internodes short; blades coriaceous..........A. lentii Croat & Baker

26b. internodes elongate; blades moderately thin..........A. melastomatis Croat

25b. Blades with usually a single collective vein (rarely with a faint second vein), usually quite close to the margin; the collective veins lacking any parallel secondary veins.

27a. Stem with elongate internodes except very near the apex; leaf blades ovate, at least half as wide as long.

28a. Spadix green to white; blades rounded at apex with a small apiculum; lower primary lateral veins spreading at nearly 90ˇ angle from the midrib..........A. subrotundum Croat

28b. Spadix reddish or purplish; blades markedly acuminate; lower primary lat-eral veins spreading at nearly 45ˇ angle from the midrib.

29a. Blades more than 7 cm wide, mostly only 1.6-1.8 times longer than wide; below 800 m; collective vein diverging from base of midrib at 60ˇ angle...........A. collinsii Croat

29b. Blades less than 6 cm wide, mostly ca. twice as long as wide; usually above 1,000 m; collective vein diverging from base of midrib at 45ˇ angle...........A. alticola Croat

27b. Stems with short internodes throughout; leaf blades more than 2 times longer than wide.

30a. Largest blades more than 25 cm long (sometimes less in A. caloveboranum}. 30b

3 la. Spadix purplish at anthesis. 31b

32a. Blades oblong-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 8-12 cm wide, 32-38 cm long.

33a. Spadix prominently stipitate; the stipe several times longer than broad; known only from Bajo Chorro in Chiriquí Prov-ince..........A. chiriquense Standl.

33b. Spadix sessile or short-stipitate; the stipe about as broad as long; known from Provinces of Code and/or Panama.

34a. Spadix with more than 9 flowers visible in the prin-cipal spiral; stamens persisting after anthesis..........A. curvilaminum Croat

34b. Spadix with 4-5 flowers visible per principal spiral: stamens retracting completely after anthesis..........A. crassilaminum Croat

32b. Blades oblong or lanceolate to narrowly ovate, less than 8 cm wide or if more than 8 cm wide, less than 30 cm long.

35a. Blades mostly 6-10 times longer than broad, mostly ob-long-linear; stamens not markedly exserted on dried spec-imens; dried lateral tepals usually less than 2 times broader in direction of axis than perpendicular to axis..........A. longistipitatum Croat

35b. Blades 2.5-5 times longer than broad, usually narrowly ovate or lanceolate; stamens markedly exserted on dried specimens; dried lateral lepals more than 2.5 times broader in direction of axis than perpendicular to axis..........A. circinatum Croat

31b. Spadix green, whitish, or yellowish at anthesis.

36a. Spadix at anthesis less than 10 cm long. 36b

37a. Spadix becoming yellow to whitish at anthesis (sometimes after anthesis in A. lancifolium).

38a. Cataphylls more than 8 cm long, conspicuously per-sisting more or less intact as a broad reticulum of pale fibers; spadix becoming yellowish at anthesis; berries red.......... A. vallense Croat

38b. Cataphylls less than 7 cm long, weathering into loose reddish brown fibers; spadix becoming grayish while: berries white or purplish.

39a. Berries while when immature, tinged violet purple at base when mature; leaf blades nar-rowly ovate, 2-3.1 times longer than broad...........A. lancifolium var. albifructum Croat

39b. Berries solid violet purple; leaf blades various. generally narrowly oblong-elliptic bul also sometimes narrowly ovate, 2.3-6(-7) times longer than broad..........A. lancifolium Schott var. lancifoliumn

37b. Spadix green at anthesis.

40a. Upper blade surface eglandular.

41a. Berries red; peduncle terete; blades usually drying grayish green; Veraguas Province..........A. caloveboranum Croat

4 Ib. Berries probably lavender; peduncle usually 3-ribbed or winged; blades usually drying brownish; Panama Province..........A. cartiense Croat

40b. Upper blade surface obscurely dark glandular-punctate.

42a. Petioles commonly 3-sided; blades subcoriaceous; berries red..........A. pageanum Croat

42b. Petioles usually not prominently 3-sided, more or less D-shaped; blades moderately thin; ber-ries white..........A. terryae Standl. & L. 0. Wms.

36b. Spadix at anthesis more than 10 cm long.

43a. Stamens remaining exposed, all 4 stamens of a single flower visible for some time (sometimes not evident in early fruiting stages); berries lavender, purple, or red.

44a. Blades usually oblanceolate-elliptic, broadest above the middle, sometimes oblong-elliptic, 3.6-6.4 times longer than broad, usually drying blackened, some-times dark brown; usually with 12-17 pairs of primary lateral veins; spadix pale green to greenish white, strongly and pleasantly fragrant during midday..........A. fragrantissimum Croat

44b. Blades usually more or less elliptic to oblong-elliptic, never broadest above the middle, drying green to brown, never blackened, usually with 8-12 primary lateral veins; spadix grayish white or greenish, not strongly aromatic; berries lavender or violet purple.

45a. Spadix green and usually more than 15 cm long at anthesis; blades usually more than 3 times longer than broad; petioles 3-sided, narrowly sulcate with sharp margins; berries lavender..........A. sagawae Croat

45b. Spadix grayish white and usually less than 15 cm long at anthesis; blades usually more than 3 times longer than broad; petioles subterete, obtusely sulcate; berries violet purple..........A. lancifolium Schott var. lancifolium

43b. Stamens weakly exposed very briefly, no single flower with 4 stamens visible at once (rarely with 3 or 4 visible at once in A. Pirrense); berries red.

46a. Cataphylls 8-15 cm long, persisting as a reticulum of pale fibers; spadix becoming yellowish at anthesis; leaf blades less than 2.5 times longer than broad; known only from Veraguas and CoclŽ Provinces.......... A. vallense Croat

46b. Cataphylls usually less than 8 cm long, usually per-sisting as a mass of reddish brown fibers (not retic-ulate); spadix greenish or orange-brown; leaf blades mostly more than 2.5 times longer than broad.

47a. Spadix at anthesis tan to orange-brown, the area around the pistil tinged purplish; known only from the Serrania de Pirre, Darien Prov-ince..........A. pirrense Croat

47b. Spadix at anthesis green; not known from Darien Province.

48a. Leaf blades less than 8 cm broad, usually 3.7-5.5 times longer than broad; petiole sharply triangular with erect margins, the margins of the geniculum undulate; blades with primary lateral veins markedly impressed above; known only from Central Panama (Panama, Code, and Veraguas Provinces)..........A. pageanum Croat

48b. Largest leaf blades more than 8 cm wide, usually less than 3.5 times longer than broad (A. acutangulum rarely to 5 times); petioles not sharply triangular, narrowly sulcate but rounded abaxially, the mar-gins of the geniculum not undulate; blades with primary lateral veins usually not markedly impressed above; widespread.

49a. Spadix 5-11 mm diam. at base at anthesis, narrower toward apex; largest leaf blades more than 35 cm long, usually more than 13 cm wide; petioles one-sixth to one-half as long as blades, rounded abaxially; pistils purplish, not exserted; pe-duncles stout, deflexed but not dangling..........A. ramonense Engl. ex K.. Krause

49b. Spadix 4-6 mm diam. at base at anthesis, scarcely tapered to apex; largest leaf blades to 34 cm long and 13 cm wide; petioles one-third to equally as long as blades, round-ed abaxially, sometimes 1-ribbed: pistils green and weakly exserted: peduncles slender, dangling, pen-dent..........A. acutangulum Engl.

30b. Largest blades less than 25 cm long (rarely to 28 cm in A. Pageanum).

50a. Spadix reddish, orange, or purplish at anthesis. 50b

5 la. Blades epunctate on lower surface, only sparsely and inconspic-uously punctate on upper surface; plants growing on rocks in or along swift streams in Code Province; berries white or green.

52a. Spathe ovate, lavender, 1.5-2.2 cm wide; spadix violet pur-ple; fruits white..........A. amnicola Dressler

52b. Spathe lanceolate, green, less than 1 cm wide; spadix green-ish brown (at least post-anthesis); fruits green..........A. sytsmae Croat

51b. Blades conspicuously punctate on the lower surface, frequently conspicuously punctate above as well; plants not growing on rocks in swift streams in CoclŽ Province (except A. rupicola); berries red, lavender, or orange, rarely white (A. jefense}.

53a. Spadix conspicuously stipitate, usually becoming coiled: the stipe more than 8 times longer than broad; leaf midrib on the upper surface much more markedly raised than below; berries red, depressed-globose, the apical area prominently raised..........A. circinatum Croat

53b. Spadix sessile or rarely weakly stipitate; straight or weakly curved but never becoming coiled; the stipe less than 3 times longer than broad; leaf midrib on the upper surface not more prominently raised than below; berries not as above, lavender, orange, white, or red but lacking a raised area apically (not known in A. crassilaminum or A. oxystachyum).

54a. Spadix long-tapered to a sharp point; the pistils often exserted at anthesis giving the spadix a rough appearance (fresh); berries unknown, probably lavender in A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix.

55a. Peduncles prominently 2-3-winged; veins weakly etched (i.e., veins sunken but surface perfectly flat) on the upper surface..........A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix Croat

55b. Peduncles terete; veins not etched above, at most weakly sunken..........A.oxystachyum Croat

54b. Spadix oblong or slightly tapered, blunt at the apex; berries yellow, orange, red, or white.

56a. Upper blade surface lacking dark, round glands; berries white, known only from vicinity ofCerro Jefe..........A. jefense Croat

56b. Upper blade surface bearing dark, round glands; berries orange or red (unknown in A. supraglandulum).

57a. Primary lateral and collective veins etched on upper surface of dried leaf blade; spadix at anthesis less than 3 cm long, spadix usually on a stipe which is 1-4 times longer than broad; berries orange to red. ....................................... A. tutense Croat

57b. Primary lateral and collective veins weakly raised on upper surface of dried leaf blade; spadix at anthesis usually more than 3 cm long (except sometimes in A. supraglandulum only 2.5 cm long); usu-ally sessile or on a stipe that is as wide as or wider than long.

58a. Leaf blades usually lanceolate, usually broadest near the base; endemic to the Serrania de Pirre..........A. cuasicanum Croat

58b. Leaf blades broadest at the middle or above.

59a. Spadix violet purple; berries not known; known only from vicinity of Cerro Jefe..........A. supraglandulum Croat

59b. Spadix reddish, yellowish to orangish; berries orange; known only from high ele-vations in Chiriquí and Da-rien..........A. alticola Croat

50b. Spadix whitish, greenish, or yellowish at anthesis.

60a. Spadix with all the stamens remaining exposed above the tepals after anthesis (i.e., not retracted from view, although sometimes covered or obscured by the expanding tepals after berry maturation begins). 60b

61 a. Spadix markedly stipitate, the stipe many times longer than broad; mostly 1-2.5 cm long; spadix pale green.

62a. Blades more than 4 times longer than broad, up to 3 cm broad; petioles less than one-half as long as the blades; endemic to CoclŽ Province..........A. brevispadix Croat

62b. Blades less than 3 times longer than broad; petioles nearly as long as or 1.5 times longer than blades; endemic to the Serrania del Sapo.................. A. barryi Croat

61b. Spadix sessile or short stipitate, the stipe no more than twice as broad as long; spadix yellow-green or green.

63a. Blades broadest above the middle, drying thin and usually gray-green; the petiole usually less than one-half as long as the blade; spadix scarcely tapered, pale green, blunt at apex; berries white..........A. terryae Standl. & L. 0. Wms.

63b. Blades broadest below the middle, drying moderately thick, various colors but usually not gray-green; the petiole usually more than one-half as long as the blade; spadix tapered or not, green to grayish while.

64a. Blades less than 15 cm long and 3 cm wide; dried spadix less than 3 mm diam.; upper sur-face of blade with small raphide cells visible on dried specimens; Cerro Jefe. .... A. gentryi Croat

64b. Blades more than 20 cm long and 4 cm wide.

65a. Berries dark violet purple at all stages of maturation; widespread..........A. lancifolium Schott var. lancifolium

65b. Berries white during development, becoming faintly violet purple at base at maturity; restricted to Chiriquí Province..........A. lancifolium var. albifructum Croat

60b. Spadix with all the stamens retracting beneath the tepals soon after anthesis, generally never with all 4 stamens of a single flower exposed at the same time.

66a. Apex of spadix tapered to a sharp point.

67a. Peduncle terete; berries green or orange.

68a. Blades oblong-elliptic, glandular-punctate on both surfaces, attenuate to narrowly acute at base, broadest at the middle; berries green..........A. gracilispadix Croat

68b. Blades lanceolate, glandular-punctate on the lower surface only, acute to obtuse or almost rounded at the base, broadest usually well below the middle; berries orange..........A. oxystachyum Croat

67b. Peduncle 2-3-winged orribbed; berries lavender (not known in A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix).

69a. Spadix green; lower blade surface matte..........A. crassiradix Croat var. crassiradix

69b. Spadix violet purple; lower blade surface semiglossy..........A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix Croat

66b. Apex of spadix ending abruptly, not tapered to a sharp point.

70a. Spadix at anthesis usually greater than 8.5 cm long.70b

7 la. Cataphylls 8-14 cm long, usually persisting as a broad reticulum of pale fibers; spadix yellow to bright yellow at anthesis; berries red, moderately acute at apex; Code, Col—n, Panama-and Veraguas Provinces..........A. vallense Croat

71 b. Cataphylls less than 8 cm long, usually weath-ering to a mass of tan fibers; spadix yellow-green to reddish at anthesis; berries orange or red to violet purple, depressed medially at apex (fresh berries not seen for A. cuasicanum).

72a. Inflorescence usually pendent; pistils conspicuously exserted at anthesis..........A. acutangulum Engl

72b. Inflorescence usually erect; pistils scarcely or not at all exserted at anthesis.

73a. Leaf blades with a second pair of prominent collective veins.

74a. Leaf blades less than 5 cm wide; Darien Province, Ser-rania de Pirre..........A. cuasicanum Croat

74b. Leaf blades usually greater than 5 cm wide (if less then with petioles much shorter than blade)..........A bicollectivum Croat

73b. Leaf blades lacking a second pair of prominent collective veins.

75a. Petioles triangular in cross-section; the geniculum usu-ally with an undulate rib adaxially; spadix prominently tapered, usually yellow-green; berries red..........A. pageanum Croat

7 5 b. Petioles terete or nearly so in cross-section; the geniculum lacking adaxial rib: spadix scarcely tapered, usually reddish; berries orange..........A. cuasicanum Croat

70b. Spadix at anthesis usually less than 8.5 cm long.

76a. Leaf blades gradually long-acuminate at apex-the acumen usually 1.5-3 cm long.

77a. Berries red to violet purple or orange: leaf blades more or less concolorous.

78a. Berries red to violet purple: leaf blades 5-10 times longer than broad, broadest at the middle; pet-ioles usually shorter than blade; spadix white; growing on rocks in swift streams, CoclŽ and Veraguas Provinces..........A. rupicola Croat

78b. Berries orange; leaf blades 3.1-3.6 times longer than wide, usually broadest well below the middle; petioles as long as or longer than the blade; spadix green to reddish; epiphyte, Darien Province, Serra- nia de Pirre..........A. cuasicanum Croat

77b. Berries white to pinkish white; leaf blades concolorous or markedly bicolorous.

79a. Leaf blades markedly bicolorous; Veraguas Province, Cerro Tute, 1,200 m..........A. dichrophyllum Croat

79b. Leaf blades concolorous or nearly so, not markedly bicolorous; Chi-riqui Province, 1,200-1,700 m..........A. gracililaminum Croat

76b. Leaf blades abruptly acuminate at apex, the acumen usually less than 1 cm long.

80a. Leaf blades punctate on both surfaces.

8 la. Leaf blades broadest above the middle; the interprimary veins drying almost as prominent as the primary lateral veins..........A. tacarcunense Croat

81 b. Leaf blades broadest at middle; the interprimary veins not as promi-nent as primary lateral veins.

82a. Spadix scarcely tapered to apex, fresh flowers with tepals prominently thickened on the outer margins giving a "cobbled" effect; dried te-pals with the medial portion thickened and the lateral portions thin and upturned; berries pale lavender to whit-ish; geniculum not acutely ribbed and undulate on abaxial margin; endemic to Darien Province, Cerro Pirre..........A. crassitepalum Croat

82b. Spadix conspicuously tapered; fresh flowers lacking thickened tepals; the surface of the spadix smooth; dried flowers normal, not as above; geniculum acutely ribbed and undulate abaxially; oc-curring west of Canal Zone..........A. pageanum Croat

80b. Leaf blades punctate on lower surface only.

83a. Peduncle terete; petioles bluntly sulcate; roots not in dense coral-loid mass; berries white; known only from Dari6n Province in the Serrania de Canasas..........A. lactifructum Croat

83b. Peduncle triangular, sometimes 2-5-ribbed or winged; petioles sharply sulcate; roots forming dense coralloid mass (i.e., fleshy and contiguous); berries probably lavender; known from Col—n and Panama Provinces..........A. cartiense Croat