Epipremnum ceramense (Engl.
& K. Krause) Alderw.
Epipremnum ceramense (Engl. & K. Krause) Alderw., Bull.
Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 1 (1920) 376. -- Scindapsus ceramensis
Engl. & K. Krause in Engl., Pflanzenr. 37 (IV.23B) (1908) 70.
-- Type: Indonesia, Maluku, Pulau Seram, Wahai, cultivated Bogor
Botanic Garden, Canarienallee 5, Feb. 1906, Engler 4004 (B holo).
Epipremnum ceramense (Engl. & K. Krause) Alderw. var.
flavispathum Alderw., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III, 1 (1920)
376. -- Type: of unknown origin, cultivated Bogor Botanic Garden,
July 1919, Alderwerelt 325 (BO holo).
Gigantic root-climber to 10 m. Adult plant with stem 20--30 mm diam.,
internodes 1.5--18 cm long, separated by prominent paler leaf scars.
Foraging stems to 5 m or more, 6--8 mm diam., internodes 15--18
cm long. Clasping roots sparse, feeding roots very long, hanging
free or adhering to climbing substrate and eventually reaching the
ground. Cataphylls and prophylls soon drying and falling. Foliage
leaves evenly distributed, lower leaves falling and thus leaves
tending to become clustered distally. Petiole 35--70 cm x 15--20
mm, canaliculate, smooth, air-drying orange- to dark-brown; apical
geniculum 3.5--5 x 2--5 mm, basal geniculum 3--5 x 1--2 cm, both
genicula greater in diameter than petiole, drying shrunken to less
than petiole diameter and almost black; petiolar sheath extending
to base of the apical geniculum, at first sub-membranaceous, soon
drying scarious with a tough hyaline margin, later disintegrating
in irregular blocks and then partially to completely falling to
leave a smooth scar. Lamina 50--90 x 20--48 cm, entire, elliptic-
to ovate-oblong, sub-coriaceous to coriaceous, apex sub-acute, abruptly
apiculate, base unequal-rounded to sub-cordate, slightly decurrent,
air-drying reddish brown; primary lateral veins simple, 18--20 per
side, 2--5 cm distant, diverging from midrib at 60°, interprimary
veins numerous, remaining sub-parallel to primary vein, all higher
order venation weakly reticulate, tessellate in places, especially
towards the lamina margins, barely visible in dried material; midrib
impressed above, very prominently raised beneath, lower order venation
slightly impressed to almost flush above, prominently raised beneath,
interprimary venation flush above, very slightly raised beneath
but conspicuous in dried specimens. Lamina 12--18 x 4--6, thinly
coriaceous, ovate-oblong, apex acuminate, base subacute; primary
lateral veins simple, diverging from midrib at 40°--45°,
interprimary veins remaining parallel to primary vein. Inflorescence
solitary, subtended by a fully developed foliage leaf with an exceptionally
broad petiolar sheath. Peduncle 6--12 cm x 10--30 mm, stout, terete,
slightly laterally compressed, tapering basally, pale green. Spathe
canoe-shaped, stoutly beaked, up to 36 x 12 cm when pressed flat,
exterior green, interior ivory-white to pale yellow at anthesis,
air-drying mid-brown to almost black. Spadix 12--34 x 2.5--4.5 cm,
sessile, conic-cylindrical, bluntly tapering towards the apex, yellow
at anthesis, air-drying mid-brown. Flowers 2--5 mm diam., the uppermost
flowers on the spadix sterile and fused into irregular groups; ovary
10--17 x 2--5 mm, cylindrical-ellipsoid, basal part strongly compressed;
ovules 2--3; stylar region 2.2--5 x 2--4 mm, trapezoid, robust,
apex slightly conical; stigma linear, c. 2 x 0.1--0.5 mm, longitudinal;
stamens 4; filaments 5 x 1 mm; anthers narrowly ellipsoid, 3--5
x 0.75--1 mm; Fruit green, ripening orange, stylar region slightly
enlarged. Seeds c. 5 x 4.5 mm, often solitary, strongly curved,
testa prominently ornamented, pale brown.
- Indonesia (Maluku).
- Margins of undisturbed forest on steep hillsides, clayey soil.
- 1. Merrill (1917: 126) cites Robinson P.R.A. 114, under Scindapsus
marantifolius Miq., as representative of Adpendix cuscuaria
latifolia [Rumphius Herbarium Amboinense (1745: 5, 488,
t.183, f.1)] a phrase-name later used as the basis of Pothos cuscuaria
Gmel. non Aubl., nom. illeg. (= Scindapsus marantiifolius
Miq., syns., among others, Aglaonema cuscuaria J.F. Gmel. (Miq.);
Scindapsus cuscuaria (J.F. Gmel.) Engl. & K. Krause &
Cuscuaria marantiifolia (Miq.) Schott]. However, the Robinson (L!,
US!) collection is clearly Epipremnum ceramense.
2. Epipremnum ceramense often aborts all but one ovule per
ovary, producing fruits with a sub-basal, massive solitary seed.
A specimen in BO! (Beguin 2254: Maluku) is annotated as Scindapsus
maclurei (Merr.) Merr. & Metcalf [Thailand, Vietnam, China
(Hainan)], on the basis of "1 seeded ovary" and numerous
other mis-determinations have occurred. Together with E. falcifolium
(which behaves similarly), E. ceramense provides strong evidence
to support merging Scindapsus and Epipremnum.
3. Alderwerelt recognized var. flavispathum on the basis of minor
differences in leaf dimensions and lamina shape and different inflorescence
colour and dimensions. These characters are variable in other Epipremnum
species (q.v. especially E. pinnatum)
and are insufficient to support even a species-subordinate taxon.
4. De Vogel (3190, L!) notes that the long feeding roots are used
for tying out-riggers on canoes on Pulau Halmahera.