The Genus Typhonium

by Wilbert Hetterscheid

The genus Typhonium has had quite some taxonomic attention recently and therefore the species list below is quite well reviewed and reliable. The major recent taxonomic treatments are:

Hay. A., 1993. The genus Typhonium (Araceae - Areae) in Australasia. Blumea 37: 345-376.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A. & P.C. Boyce, 2000. A reclassification of Sauromatum Schott and new species of Typhonium Schott (Araceae). Aroideana 23: 48 - 55.

Hetterscheid, W.L.A., D. Sookchaloem & J. Murata, 2001. Typhonium (Araceae) of Thailand: new species and a revised key. Aroideana 24: 30 - 55.

Sookchaloem, D. 1995. Typhonium (Araceae) in Thailand. Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 23: 18 - 39.

Sriboonma, D., J. Murata & K. Iwatsuki, 1994. A revision of Typhonium (Araceae). J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, III, 14(4): 255 - 313.

It has been assumed by all these authors that Typhonium is a "natural" (monophyletic) genus, derived in all its species-richness from one common ancestral species. However, recent preliminary DNA studies by Dr. Susanne Renner suggest that in fact Typhonium may be an assemblage of smaller natural groups that do not root to one and the same common ancestor. In other words, groups may be missing that ought to be included in Typhonium (e.g. the genus Theriophonum) and/or groups in Typhonium do not belong there at all. A possible result is that Typhonium should be split up in a smaller remnant that may retain the name Typhonium and several closely related smaller genera (in which case possibly Sauromatum may be resurrected, or Lazarum!!), or Typhonium may be redesigned so as to include several present genera. Either solution will cause some taxonomic ripples. For now we can all feel comfy with the list below until further notice...................

The list contains only a limited number of synonyms, chosen because they are either quite recent or still often used. Other synonyms can be taken from the above cited literature.

Wilbert Hetterscheid


Lazarum mirabile A. Hay = T. mirabile

T. acetosella Gagn.

T. adnatum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. albidinervum C.Z. Tang & H. Li

T. albispathum Bogn.

T. alismifolium F. Muell.

T. alpinum C.Y. Wu ex H. Li, Y. Shiao & S.L. Tseng

T. angustilobum F. Muell.

T. attapeuensis A. Galloway

T. austrotibeticum H. Li = T. diversifolium

T. bachmaense Nguyen V.D. & Hett.

T. baoshanense Z.L.Dao & H. Li

T. blumei Nicolson & Sivad.

T. bognerianum J. Murata & Sookchaloem

T. brevipes Hook. f. = Sauromatum brevipes (Hook. f.) N.E. Br.

T. brevipilosum Hett. & Sizemore

T. brownii Schott

T. bulbiferum Dalzell

T. circinnatum Hett. & J. Mood

T. cochleare A. Hay

T. conchiforme Hett. & A. Galloway

T. cordifolium S.Y. Hu

T. corrugatum Hett. & Rybkova

T. digitatum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. divaricatum Bl. = T. roxburghii

T. diversifolium Wall. ex Schott = Sauromatum diversifolium

T. echinulatum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. eliosurum (F. Muell. ex Benth.) O.D. Evans

T. filiforme Ridl.

T. flagelliforme (Lodd.) Bl.

T. fultum Ridl.

T. gagnepainii J. Murata & Sookchaloem

T. gallowayi Hett.

T. gaoligongense (Wang & H. Li) Hett. & P.C. Boyce = Sauromatum gaoligongense Wang & H. Li

T. giganteum Engl. = Sauromatum giganteum (Engl.) Cusimano & Hett.

T. glaucum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. gracile (Roxb.) Schott = T. neogracile

T. griseum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. hayatae Sriboonma & J. Murata

T. hirsutum = Sauromatum hirsutum (S.Y. Hu) Cusimano & Hett.

T. horsfieldii (Miq.) Steenis = Sauromatum horsfieldii Miq.

T. huense Nguyen V.D. & Croat

T. hunanense H. Li & Z.Q. Liu

T. inopinatum Prain

T. jinpingense Z.T. Wang, H. Li & F.H. Bian

T. johnsonianum A. Hay & S.M. Taylor

T. jonesii A. Hay

T. khonkaenensis A. Galloway & Seth Charoenwong

T. laoticum Gagn.

T. liliifolium F. Muell. ex Schott

T. lineare Hett. & Nguyen V.D.

T. listeri Prain

T. medusae Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. mirabile (A. Hay) A. Hay

T. neogracile J. Murata

T. nudibaccatum A. Hay

T. omeiense H. Li = T. horsfieldii

T. orbifolium Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. pedatisectum Gage

T. pedunculatum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. peltandroides A. Hay

T. penicillatum Nguyen V.D. & Hett.

T. pottingeri Prain

T. praecox J. Murata

T. preatermissum A. Hay

T. pusillum Sookchaloem, Nguyen V.D. & Hett.

T. ramosum Hett.

T. reflexum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. rhizomatosum A. Galloway & P. Schmidt

T. roxburghii Schott

T. russell-smithii A. Hay

T. sagittariifolium Gagn.

T. saraburiensis Sookchaloem

T. sinhabaedyai Hett. & A. Galloway

T. smitinandii D. Sookchaloem & J. Murata

T. stigmatilobatum Nguyen V.D.

T. subglobosum Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. supraneeae A. Galloway, P. Schmidt, & C. Sinhabaedya

T. taylori A. Hay

T. tentaculatum Hett. = Sauromatum tentaculatum Hett.

T. trifoliatum F.T. Wang & H.S. Lo ex H. Li, Y. Shiao & S.L. Tseng

T. trilobatum (L.) Schott

T. tubispathum Hett. & A. Galloway

T. varians Hett. & Sookchaloem

T. venosum (Dryand. ex Aiton) Hett. & P.C. Boyce = Sauromatum venosum (Aiton) Kunth

T. vermiforme Nguyen V.D. & Croat

T. violaefolium Gagn.

T. viridispathum A. Galloway & C. Sinhabaedya

T. watanabei J. Murata, D. Sookchaloem & Hett.

T. weipanum A. Hay

T. wilbertii A. Hay


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