GENUS Hapaline Schott
Schott, Gen. Aroid. 44, t.44 (1858) nom. cons. (see Nicolson 1981,
Eichler et al. 1984) & Prodr. syst. Aroid. 161-62 (1860); Benth.
& Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 3(2): 977-78 (1883); Engler in A. & C. DC.,
Monogr. Phan. 2: 489-90 (1879) & in Engler & Prantl (eds), Nat.
Pflanzenfam. 2(3): 139 (1889); Engler & Krause in Engler (ed.),
Pflanzenr. 71 (IV.23F): 21-22 (1920); Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6:
521 (1893); Ridley, Fl. Mal. Penins. 5: 95-6 (1925); Gagnepain in
Notul. Syst. 9: 116-40 (1941) & in Lecomte (ed.) Fl. Głn. l‰Indo-Chine
6: 1130-1132 (1942); Hu in Dansk. Bot. Ark. 23: 426 - 27. (1968);
Bogner in Pl. Syst. Evol. 144: 59-66 (1984). Hapale Schott in Oesterr.
Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 85 (1857), in syn., nom. rejic. (see Nicolson
1981, Eichler et al. 1984).
Diminutive to moderately
sized, slender to slightly robust, tuberous to stoloniferous-stemmed,
clump-forming perennial evergreen or deciduous herbs to 30 cm tall.
Stem tuberous to stoloniferous, eventually clustering, stolon slender,
encased by several cataphylls. Roots slender, little branched. Leaves:
prophyll tubular; cataphyll oblong-lanceolate to linear-triangular
or triangular, apex attenuate to acute; petiole terete, slender;
leaf blade ovate to sagittate to hastate, light to dark green, occasionally
with pale green diffuse markings. Inflorescence emerging before,
with, or after the leaves, 3 - many together, carried below, level
with or above the foliage; peduncle terete, slender, shorter than
to exceeding petiole; spathe limb elliptic to lanceolate, apex acute
to briefly attenuate; lower spathe margins clasping; spadix with
female zone adnate to spathe, male and sterile zones free, cylindric
to fusiform, tapering apically into an attenuated to short sterile
appendix composed of fused or free synandrodes. Flowers unisexual,
naked; synandria irregularly linear-elongate to oblong in plan view,
apex flat, connectives massively enlarged into mushroom-like structures,
thecae roundish, inserted on the lower margin of the connective
apex, dehiscing by an ovate pore; ovary bottle-shaped to ellipsoid;
stigma capitate, papillose; style absent to rather pronounced. Infructescence
partially to completely enclosed by the persistent lower spathe,
few-berried; berries globular to ellipsoid usually with persistent
stigmatic remains, pericarp leathery, white, mesocarp sticky, whitish;
seed ellipsoid with a very thin smooth testa and a conspicuous raphe,
embryo large, plumule conspicuous, seed lacking endosperm. Type
species: Hapaline benthamiana
Schott. Seven species ranging from Burma to China (Yunnan) and south