[Note: None of the
species in this group are naked along the sinus except P.
mexicanum, and sometimes weakly naked in P.
sulcicaule, and P.
wilburii var. longipedunculatum, P.
wilburii var. wilburii, and P.
WITH DECIDUOUS CATAPHYLLS
elongate, usually much longer than broad; plants usually vines or at least
2. Blades with the
posterior rib (coalesced basal veins) not naked (i.e. not running closely parallel
to the margin of the sinus).
3. Stems coarsely
asperous, covered with branched scales or setose-pubescent.
4. Blades ovate-triangular,
subcoriaceous; posterior lobes slender, usually flaring; stems reddish brown,
covered with trichome- like, frequently branched scales; berries pale yellow;
style very short; occurring usually in wet habitats; Nicaragua to Panama
and South America, 60-230 m.
4. Blades ovate-cordate,
thin; posterior lobes directed inward at maturity; stems greenish, covered
with elongate setae; berries pale orange to red or reddish orange; usually
occurring in dry habitats; Mexico to Panama, West Indies and South America,
3. Stems smooth,
not covered with branched scales.
5. Petioles prominently
flattened dorsiventrally with the lateral margins sometimes acute; Nicaragua
to Ecuador, 0-1,250 m.
5. Petioles terete
to subterete, not prominently flattened laterally.
usually much shorter than the spathe, usually short and stout, usually
less than 7 cm long at anthesis, drying 6-10 mm diam; ovules many (usually
10-20) per locule.
Leaf blades narrowly ovate-elliptic or triangular-sagittate or triangular-hastate,
usually 1.8 times longer than wide; posterior rib more than 3 cm long.
Leaf blades narrowly ovate-elliptic, posterior lobes about as broad
as long, directed toward the base; sinus +/- V-shaped; ovules ca.
20 per locule; Mexico (Chiapas), 0-1,300 m.
Leaf blades triangular-sagittate to triangular-hastate; posterior
lobes typically much longer than broad; sinus usually not V-shaped
but parabolic to spathulate; ovules usually 1-2 per locule; Mexico
to Colombia, 0-1,900 m.
Leaf blades ovate, usually only slightly longer than wide (rare to 1.9
times longer than wide in P. hederaceum); posterior rib virtually
lacking or to at most 1 cm long.
Stems drying dark reddish brown, prominently ribbed, usually densely
warty; Costa Rica to Ecuador and Suriname; (250)300-900 m.
hederaceum (Jacq.)Schott var. kirkbridei Croat
drying either green and only weakly striate or light yellowish brown
and deeply fissured on drying.
drying yellowish brown, prominently ridged, smooth and glossy; spathe
tube violet-purple; Costa Rica to Ecuador, 0-1,520 m.
drying greenish, weakly striate; spathe tube green; Mexico to West
Indies, widespread in South America
hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott
CORDATE VINES WITH DECIDUOUS
CATAPHYLLS AND BLADES WITH NAKED POSTERIOR RIBS
frequently as long as or longer than the spathe, usually elongate and narrow,
drying 3-4 mm diam; ovules 1 or 2 per locule.
Leaf blades lacking any obvious primary lateral veins; stems prominently
sulcate-ribbed even when fresh; ovules 1 per locule; NE Costa Rica to
central Panama; 100-700 m.
11. Leaf blades
with obvious primary lateral veins; stems smooth (or at least not regularly
and prominently sulcate-ribbed longitudinally when fresh); ovules 2
per locule; Panama (Darién); 850-1,560 m.
2. Blades with the
posterior rib naked and closely parallel to the sinus for usually 1.5 cm or
more (sometimes to as little as 1 cm in P.
setose-pubescent; blades thin, membranaceous on drying; spathe tube inflated
with considerable space between the inner surface of the spathe and the
spadix; pistils elongated at apex into a style, the style to ca 5 mm long;
Mexico to Panama, Cuba and northern South America; 0-1,500 (2,500) m.
glabrous; blades coriaceous to subcoriaceous, firm on drying; spathe not
inflated-bulbous at base, fitting tightly over spadix; pistils not at all
elongated into a distinct stylar region.
prominently and regularly sulcate-ribbed when fresh.
less than 24 cm long, lacking obvious primary lateral veins; petioles to
21 cm long; NE Costa Rica to Isthmus of Panama; 100-700 m.
more than 26 cm long, with 3-4 obvious pairs of primary lateral veins;
petioles more than 29 cm long; S. Mexico to Guatemala; 700-1525 m.
smooth or irregularly fissured but not regularly sulcate-ribbed.
mostly broadly ovate, usually more than 25 cm wide; posterior lobes usually
broadly rounded, about as wide as long; stems drying light reddish brown
with flaking epidermis.
brunneicaule Croat & Grayum
mostly ovate-triangular or triangular-sagittate to triangular-hastate,
mostly less than 25 cm wide (sometimes broader in P. smithii).
16. Blades sagittate
to hastate at base; posterior lobes 2-3 times longer than broad; posterior
rib directed straight toward the tip of the blade and 1.5-3.5 cm distant
from the lower edge of the blade; Mexico to Panama, 0-1,900 m.
16. Blades cordate
or sagittate (rarely hastate in some forms of P. wilburii); posterior
lobes usually less than 2 times longer than wide (except sometimes more
than 2 times longer in P. wilburii, and then drying reddish brown,
not greenish as in P. mexicanum); posterior rib mostly curved along
and near the margin of the sinus, rarely more than 1 cm from the lower
2-ribbed; blades usually more than 35 cm long; petiole often with a purple
ring at apex; peduncles usually longer than the
to Nicaragua, 40-600(1,500) m. P.
1-ribbed (rarely 2-ribbed); blades usually less than 36 cm long; petioles
lacking a purple ring at the apex; peduncles usually shorter than the spathe
(except often longer in P. wilburii var. longipedunculatum);
central Costa Rica to central Panama, 0-2,000 m.
wilburii Croat & Grayum
CORDATE NON-VINES WITH DECIDUOUS
CATAPHYLLS AND NON-NAKED POSTERIOR RIBS
1. Internodes of mature
stems broader than long or sometimes somewhat longer than broad but not elongate
with long internodes and scandent stems (possibly somewhat scandent in P.
breedlovei and P.
sousae); plants mostly appressed- climbing hemiepiphytes.
either densely covered with scales or D-shaped with undulate-winged margins.
terete, less than 1 cm diam, densely covered with conspicuous, spreading
scales; blade almost as broad as long, the major veins on the lower surface
densely puberulent; Panama to Ecuador; 0-1,300 m.
sharply D-shaped or sharply flattened with undulate-winged margins, more
than 1.5 cm diam, glabrous, lacking scales; blades much longer than broad;
veins of lower surface glabrous; Panama (Chiriquí); 1,100-1,300
not scaly or winged-margined, but instead smooth and terete to merely obtusely
rib naked along the sinus.
usually less than 10 cm long.
less than 25 cm long, drying dark brown to yellow-brown above.
ovate-trianular, 1.8-3 times longer than wide; posterior lobes 1.4-1.8
times longer than wide (measured from petiole plexus to tip of lobe for
length; middle of lobe for width); inflorescence solitary; Panama (Chiriquí),
more than 9 cm long; petioles markedly flattened to 3-6 cm wide on drying,
often yellowish; 700-900 m, Coclé Province, Panama.
Blades ovate, 1.3-1.6 time longer than wide; posterior lobes about as broad
as long; inflorescences 2-3 per axil.
22. Blades more
than 35 cm long, usually drying green to brownish green to grayish green
to dark olive-green (sometimes dark brown in P. zhuanum or blackish
in P. smithii) above, reddish brown to yellowish green below.
Peduncles less than 9.5 cm long; petioles not markedly flattened on drying,
8-15 mm diam, usually greenish to dark brown on drying. Less than 360 m
along the Caribbean coast in Costa Rica.
aromaticum Croat& Grayum
21. Peduncle usually
10 or more cm long.
25. Leaf blades
with margins convex in lower 1/2 of blade; Mexico to Nicaragua; 40-600(1,500)
20. Posterior rib
not naked along the sinus or merely weakly and obscurely naked near its
Stem drying light brown; epidermis often flaking; petioles spongiose but
drying moderately smooth and flattened to ca. 1 cm wide; blades drying
thin and lacking conspicuous secretory canals; 40-1,500 m (mostly less
than 600 m), Mexico to Nicaragua.
25. Blades with
margins straight to concave in lower 1/2 of blade; Costa Rica and Panama.
26. Stem drying
dark brown; epidermis folded or cracked but not flaking; petioles firm,
drying heavily wrinkled, flattening 3-6 cm wide; blades drying coriaceous
with conspicuous secretory canals; 700-900 m, Panama (Coclé Prov.).
Leaf blades drying pale yellow-green, lacking any sign of secretory ducts
on lower surface; ovules 1 per locule; Costa Rica, 1,350-1,400 m.
Croat & Grayum
27. Leaf blades
drying dark olive-green or dark brown, with secretory ducts visible alternating
with the minor veins on lower surface; ovules 4-5 per locule; highlands
near Costa Rican-Panamanian border; 1,100-1,950 m.
Blades with posterior lobes turned inward and overlapping; peduncles long
and slender, drying ca. 2-4 mm diam; 850-1,560 m, Serrania de Pirre, Darién
with posterior lobes never overlapping( except sometimes in P.
ferrugineum), usually directed downward or somewhat outward; peduncles
stout, usually 5-10 mm diam. on drying.
barely or not at all constricted near the middle or above the tube portion;
sterile staminate portion of the spadix often conspicuously broader than
the pistillate portion at anthesis (50% broader); Mexico to Guatemala,
usually visibly constricted above the tube (usually somewhat below the
middle); sterile staminate portion of the spadix only slightly broader
(or even narrower) than the pistillate portion (or not detectable).
1-3 per axil; spathes less than 11 cm long (except 9.5-18 cm long in P.
lateral veins mostly more than 8 pairs; minor veins etched-sunken on upper
surface, lower surface more or less bluish green; 800-2,200 m., Costa Rica
31. Primary lateral
veins 4-8 pairs (sometimes to 9 pairs in P.
sagittifolium); Mexico and Belize.
32. Leaf blades
ca. 1.6 times longer than wide; ovules 1-7 per locule.
drying gray-green below; sap white; ovules 1 per locule; Belize, less than
33. Blades drying
dark yellow- brown below; sap clear, turning brown?; ovules 4-7 per locule;
Panama, 1,600 m.
32. Leaf blades
ca. 1.8 times longer than wide; ovules 2-4(5-8) or ca. 20 per locule; Mexico
(Chiapas, 1,300 m) or widespread, Mexico to South America, 150-2,700 m.
ca. 1.8 times longer than wide; inflorescence 1 per axil; ovules 20 per
locule; Mexico (Chiapas), 1,300 m.
4-6 per axil; spathes 15-23 cm long.
Blades 1.85-2 times longer than wide, inflorescences 1-3 per axil.
usually more than 25 cm long; blades usually more than 55 cm long, drying
coriaceous, reddish brown, with minute interrupted ridges on lower surface;
Panama, 100-770 m.
less than 25 cm long; blades usually less than 55 cm long, drying subcoriaceous,
brown to olive-green, smooth or minutely ridged but not with interrupted
ridges on lower surface; Mexico (Chiapas), 490-1,400 m.