Anthurium Start PageContentsHistoryKey to Anthurium of Panama

Provisional sectional placement of Anthurium species of Panama

' Two sections do not occur in Panama. Section Gymnopodium is represented by a single Cuban species, A. gymnopus Grisebach. Section Chamaerepium is represented by a single Brazilian species, A. radicans C. Koch. Although Section Urospadix may be restricted to South America, with concentrations in eastern and southeastern Brazil, some Panamanian species are tentatively placed in this section. Characters in key may be broader than those for the species represented.

la. Leaf blades prominently 3-lobed or palmatifid to palmatisect.

2a. Leaf blades with 3 lobes, united at the base; the lateral or posterior lobes often smaller than the median lobe............. Section Semaeophyllium Schott
A. angustilobum Croat
A. cineraceum Croat
A. garagaranum Standl.
A. impolitum Croat
A. madisonianum Croat
A. tilaranense Standl.
2b. Leaf blades with 3 or more lobes, free to the base......... Section Daclylophyllium Schott
A. clavigerum Poepp.
A. kunthii Poepp.
A. pentaphyllum (Aubl.) G. Don var. bombacifolium(Schott) Madison
A. trisectum Sodiro

1b. Leaf blades entire or nearly so, sometimes with the anterior lobe markedly constricted at the base but never distinctly 3-lobed. 3a. Leaf blades conspicuously dark glandular-punctate at least on the lower surface.

4a. Leaf blades cordate, hastate or otherwise with usually definite posterior lobes; most basal veins usually merging with the margin of the blade before the middle of the blade..........Section Belolonchium Schott (A. verapazense alliance)
A. hornitense Croat
4b. Leaf blades acute to obtuse or subcordate at base with usually only a single collective vein extending along the margin to the apex (sections Tetraspermium and Porphyrochitonium) or with several basal veins prominently arcuate-ascending to the apex with many close, parallel primary lateral veins giving the blade the appearance of a melastomataceous leaf blade (section Digitinervium).

5a. Leaf blades with several pairs of basal veins sharply arcuate-ascending, extending to or almost to the apex; primary lateral veins numerous, distinct, parallel, and extending more or less straight between all the basal veins giving the leaf blade the appearance of a melastomataceous blade; number of ovules and seeds per locule unknown..........Section Digitinervium Sodiro

A. lentii Croat & Baker

5 b. Leaf blades with usually no more than one pair of basal veins (usually merely the collective vein) extending along the margin to the apex; primary lateral veins usually not numerous or closely parallel; ovules and seeds usually 2 or more per locule.

6a. Plants mostly scandent; stems slender, mostly less than 6 mm diam.; internodes somewhat elongate; berries acute at apex.......... Section Tetraspermium Schott

A. scandens (Aubl.) Engl. ssp. scandens
A. scandens ssp. pusillum Shener
A. tonduzii Engl.
A. trinerve Miq.

6b. Plants usually more or less caespitose, at least lacking slender, scandent stems; stems usually more than 1 cm diam.; berries often more or less truncate and indented at the apex........... Section Porphyrochitonium Schott

A. acutangutum Engl.
A. alticola Croat
A. amnicola Dressler
A. bakeri Hook. f.
A. barryi Croat
A. bicollectivum Croat
A. brevispadix Croat
A. caloveboranum Croat
A. cartiense Croat
A. chiriquense Standl.
A. circinatum Croat
A. collinsii Croat
A. crassilaminum Croat
A. crassiradix Croat var. crassiradix
A. crassiradix var. purpureospadix Croat
A. crassitepalum Croat
A. cuasicanum Croat
A. curvilaminum Croat
A. dichrophyllum Croat
A. dwyeri Croat
A. fragrantissimum Croat
A. friedrichsthalii Schott
A. gentryi Croat
A. gracililaminum Croat
A. gracilispadix Croat
A. hacumense Engl.
A. jefense Croat
A. kallunkiae Croat
A. lactifructum Croat
A. lancifolium Schott var. lancifolium
A. lancifolium var. albifructum Croat
A. longistipitatum Croat
A. melastomatis Croat
A. Oxystachyum Croat
A. pageanum Croat
A. Paludosum Engl.
A. pendens Croat
A. pirrense Croat
A. ramonense Engl. ex K. Krause
A. redolens Croat
A. rupicola Croat
A. sagawaeCroat
A. subrotundum Croat
A. supraglandulum Croat
A. sytsmae Croat
A. tacarcunense Croat
A. terryae Standl. & L. 0. Wms.
A. tutense Croat
A. vallense Croat
A. wendlingeri G. M. Barroso

3b. Leaf blades epunctale or at least not conspicuously dark glandular-punctate.

7a. Vernation of leaf blades involute (i.e., with both margins rolled inward toward the midrib in bud); plants frequently with a "bird's nest" habit (i.e., short stems and rosulate leaves); blades often thick, frequently more or less oblanceolate or obovate to elliptic; the primary lateral veins (at least the lower ones) joining the margins..........Section Pachyneurium Schott

A. acutifolium Engl.
A. colonicum K. Krause
A. concolor K. Krause
A. consobrinum Schott
A. cubense Engl.
A. cuneatissimum (Engl.) Croat
A. cuspidatum Mast.
A. fatoense K. Krause
A. fendleri Schott
A. luteynii Croat
A. nervatum Croat
A. protensum Schott ssp. arcuatum Croat
A. pseudospectabile Croat
A. purpureospathum Croat
A. ranchoanum Engl.
A salviniae Hemsl.
A. seibertii Croat & Baker
A spathiphyllum N. E. Brown
A. standleyi Croat & Baker
A. validifolium K. Krause

7b. Vernation of leaf blades supervolute (i.e., with one margin rolled inward toward the midrib but with the alternate margin rolled around the midrib and the rolled up opposite margin, giving the "crosssectional" view a cochleate appearance); plants usually lacking a "bird's nest" habit; leaves various; the primary lateral veins frequently joining into a collective vein before reaching the margin.

8a. Stems scandent and wiry; internodes elongate, usually less than 3 mm thick, with numerous, short adventitious roots scattered along their length; flowering branches bearing 1-6 leaves; 1-ribbed cataphylls lacking; pollen inaperturate, gemmate..........Section Polyphyllium Engl.

A. flexile Schott

8b. Stems short or scandent but not slender and wiry; internodes short or long but not slender and wiry, usually more than 8 mm diam., the adventitious roots restricted to the nodes: flowering branches bearing a single leaf (branches are short and do not appear like branches); 1 -ribbed cataphylls present and usually conspicuous; pollen forate, reticulate to spinulose.

9a. Roots white, bearing a velamen; blades thin, narrowly oblanceolate, the primary lateral veins numerous and scarcely more prominent than the interprimary veins, stems rarely more than 1 cm diam. with persistent reddish brown, intact cataphylls: spadix with no more than 3 flowers visible per spiral (from any angle); chromosome numbers In = 40 or 60...........Section Leptanthurium Schott

A. gracile (Rudge) Lindl.

9b. Roots usually greenish, lacking velamen; blades various, usually with the primary lateral veins conspicuously more prominent than the interprimary veins; stems various; cataphylls usually weathering (except section Calomystrium with cordate blades): number of flowers visible per spiral various but usually more than 3 per spiral; chromosome numbers mostly In = 30.

10 a. Leaf blades velvety, usually metallic green or blackish green in color; the epidermal cells papillate or otherwise elevated; petioles frequently ribbed; B-chromosomes present..........Section Cardiolonchium Schott

A. cerrocampanense Croat
A. crystallinum Linden & Andre
A. dressleri Croat
A. folsomianum Croat
A. papillilaminum Croat

10 b. Leaf blades not velvety, usually smooth and semiglossy to glossy; the epidermal cells flat, not papillate or raised; petioles various but not commonly ribbed; B-chromosomes lacking.

11a. Stems bearing conspicuous, thick, intact, persistent, reddish brown cata-phylls; leaf blades usually thick; the minor veins usually not prominently raised; the upper blade surface usually with linear raphide cells visible;spadix often colored and often sweetly scented; spathe usually thick, often broad. .....Section Calomystrium Schott

A. chromostachyum Croat
A. colonense Croat
A. cucullispathum Croat
A. curvispadix Croat
A. erythrostachyum Croat
A. foreroanum Croat
A. formosum Schott
A. fusiforme Croat
A. globosum Croat
A. hammelii Croat
A. hoffmannii Schott
A. kamemotoanum Croat
A. oblusilobum Schott
A. ravenii Croat & Baker
A. roseospadix Croat
A. sanctifidense Croat
A. sapense Croat
A. tysonii Croat

II b. Stems usually with cataphylls deciduous or weathering into a mass of fibers; leaf blades thick or thin; the minor veins conspicuous or not; the upper surface usually lacking raphide cells; spadix various, less frequently scented; spathe various, often lanceolate. 12a. Leaf blades much longer than broad, oblong to linear (rarely ovate but then thin, veiny, and weakly bullate in A. davidsoniae). 13a. Stems elongate, erect to scandent, 7-20 mm diam.; berries frequently green..........Section Xialophyllium Schott

A. angustispadix Croat & Baker
A. carnosum Croat & Baker
A. cerropirrense Croat
A. coclense Croat
A. davidsoniae Standl.
A. hutchisonii Croat
A. interruptum Sodiro
A. leptocaule Croat
A. microspadix Schott
A. myosuroides (H.B.K..) Endl.
A. pallens Schott
A. pauciflorum Croat
A. rubrifructum Croat
A. testaceum Croat & Baker

13b. Stems short; the internodes short; stems mostly less than 10 mm diam.; berries usually not green (except in A. caperatum and A. panduriforme).

14a. Flowers with pistils early emergent, usually held considerably above the tepals at anthesis; spathe conspicuously decurrent..........Section Oxycarpium Schott

2 This section only tentatively used and further work may prove it to be unwarranted.

A. pittieri Engl. var. pittieri
A. pittieri var. morii Croat

14b. Flowers with pistil scarcely or not at all emergent at anthesis; spathe usually not decurrent (except in A. correae)............ Section Urospadix Engl.

A. correae Croat
A. llanense Croat
A. michelii Guillaum
A. platyrhizum Croat
A. wedelianum Croat ssp. wedelianum
A. wedelianum ssp. viridispadix Croat

12b. Leaf blades not much longer than broad (or at least not oblong or linear), mostly more or less ovate with posterior lobes.

15a. Blades moderately thin, often conspicuously veiny or even bullate; anterior lobe usually with numerous, close, more or less parallel veins..Section Polyneurium Engl.

A. caperatum Croat & Baker
A. chorranum Croat
A. coloradense Croat
A. malianum Croat
A. niqueanum Croat
A. panduriforme Schott
A. williamsii K. Krause

15b. Blades coriaceous or nearly so, usually smooth and not noticeably veiny or bullate; anterior lobe lacking numerous close parallel veins. .......................................... Section Belolonchium Schottbelolonchium/antonioanum.php

A. antonioanum Croat
A. brownii Mast.
A. cinereopetiolatum Croat
A. concinnatum Schott
A. cotobrusii Croat & Baker
A. dukei Croat
A. hebetatum Croat
A. ochranthum C. Koch
A. panamense Croat
A. pluricostatum Croat & Baker
A. rolundistigmatum Croat
A. teribense Croat
A. watermaliense Hort. ex L. H. Bailey