References on Aroid Pollination and Ecology

Marc Gibernau has graciously shared his list of references on Aroid pollination and ecology, and grated us permission to link a selection of his papers here. We will be adding links to papers for both the public and IAS Members as time and copyright allow.

Many older references, particularly on insects, are available thanks to D.C. Drummond who provided paper copies to Marc Gibernau.

NOTE: The papers here are generally posted with the permission of an author or the publisher, or with expired copyright, and are presented for the purpose of furthering an ongoing academic discussion. However, there are a large number of papers gleaned from a large number of sources and sometimes things fall through the cracks. If you hold rights to a paper linked here, and believe that it has been posted in violation of copyright, please contact Albert Huntington to have it removed immediately with our sincere apologies.



Acebey, A., T. Krömer, B. L. Maass and M. Kessler 2010. Ecoregional distribution of potentially useful species of Araceae and Bromeliaceae as non-timber forest products in Bolivia. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 2553-2564.

Acebey, A. and T. Krömer 2008. Diversidad y distribucion de Araceae de la reserva de la biosfera Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: 465-471.

Adler, I., D. Barabé and R. V. Jean 1997. A History of the study of phyllotaxis. Annals of Botany 80: 231-244.

Affourtit, C. and A. L. Moore 2004. Purification of the plant alternative oxidase from Arum maculatum: measurement, stability and metal requirement. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1608: 181-189.

Ahmed, Z. F., M. A. El-Keiy, A. M. Rizk, F. M. Hammouda and E. F. Abdel-Bary 1968. Phytochemical studies on Egyptian Araceae species. Planta Medica 16: 282-293.

Aizpuri, I., J. Garmendia, I. Olariaga, J. Terés, I. Zendoia and J. Vivant 2004. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del Pais Vasco (VI). Munibe 55: 147-154.

Albre, J., A. Quilichini and M. Gibernau 2003. Pollination ecology of Arum italicum (Araceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(2): 205-214.

Albre, J. and M. Gibernau 2008. Reproductive biology of Arum italicum (Araceae) in South of France. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156: 43-49.

Allen, A. K. 1995. Purification and characterization on an N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectin from tubers of Arum maculatum. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1244: 129-132.

Allen, B. M. 1972. Notes on two species of Arisarum in south-west Spain. Kew Bulletin 26(1): 59-60.

Andrade, I. M., S. J. Mayo, C. Van den Berg, M. F. Fay, M. Chester, C. Lexer and D. Kirkup 2007. A preliminary study of genetic variation in populations of Monstera adansonii var. klotzschiana (Araceae) from north-east Brazil, estimated with AFLP molecular markers. Annals of Botany 100: 1143-1154.

Andrade, I. M., S. J. Mayo, C. Van den Berg, M. F. Fay, M. Chester, C. Lexer and D. Kirkup 2009. Genetic variation in natural populations of Anthurium sinuatum and A. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum (Araceae) from north-east Brazil using AFLP molecular markers. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 88-105.

Andrade, I. M., S. J. Mayo, D. Kirkup and C. Van den Berg 2008. Comparative morphology of populations of Monstera Adans. (Araceae) from natural forest fragments in Northeast Brazil using elliptic Fourier analysis of leaf outlines. Kew Bulletin 63: 193-211.

Andrade, I. M., S. J. Mayo, D. Kirkup and C. Van den Berg 2010. Elliptic Fourier analysis of leaf shape of Anthurium sinuatum Benth. ex Schott and A. pentaphyllum (Aubl.) G. Don (Araceae) in forest fragment populations from Northeast Brazil. Kew Bulletin 65: 1-18.

Andrade, I. M. and S. J. Mayo 2000. Dynamic shoot morphology in root-climbing Araceae: Philodendron rudgeanum Schott and Ph. fragrantissimum (Hook.) G.Don. Feddes Repertorium 111(5-6): 295-314.

Anger, E. M. and M. Weber 2006. Pollen-wall formation in Arum alpinum. Annals of Botany 97: 239-244.

Angioy, A.-M., I. Urru and I. Collu 2001? Helicodiceros in Sardinia. Web site: 3.

Angioy, A.-M., M. C. Stensmyr, I. Urru, M. Puliafito, I. Collu and B. S. Hansson 2004. Function of the heater: the dead horse arum revisited. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 271((Suppl.) - Biology letters): S13-S15.

ap Rees, T., B. W. Wright and W. A. Fuller 1977. Measurements of starch breakdown as estimates of glycolysis during thermogenesis by the spadix of Arum maculatum L. Planta 134: 53-56.

ap Rees, T., W. A. Fuller and B. W. Wright 1976. Pathways of carbohydrate oxidation during thermogenesis by the spadix of Arum maculatum. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 437: 22-35.

Araceae). American Journal of Botany 80(7): 769-777.

Aragon, S. L., K.-C. Chuang and A. R. Kuehnle 2004. An effective method for co-isolating nucleic acids from horticultural aroids. HortScience 39(1): 177-180.

Arcangeli, G. 1886. Osservazioni sull'impollinazione in alcune Araceae. Ricerche e Lavori nell'Insituto Botanico della Reala Universita di Pisa: 29-53.

Arcangeli, G. 1886. Osservazioni sulla fioritura dell'Arum pictum L. Ricerche e Lavori nell'Insituto Botanico della Reala Universita di Pisa I: 108-109.

Arcangeli, G. 1886. Sopra la fioritura del Dracunculus crinitus Schott. Ricerche e Lavori nell'Insituto Botanico della Reala Universita di Pisa: 57-59.

Arcangeli, G. 1890. Altre osservazioni sul Dracunculus vulgaris (L.) Schott,e sul suo processo d'impollinazione. Malphigia 4: 254-261.

Arends, J. C., J. D. Bastmeijer and N. Jacobsen 1982. Chromosome numbers and taxonomy in Cryptocoryne (Araceae). II. Nordic Journal of Botany 2(5): 453-463.

Armitage, E. 1921. Some observations on Arum maculatum L. Lancaster & Cheshire Naturalist 13(7): 121-124.

Austen, E. E. 1896. Necrophagous diptera attracted by the odour of flowers. Annals of the Magazine of Natural History Zoology Botany Geology 18: 237-240.


Baez, M. and F. Vaillant 198? Psychoda nugatrix n. sp. et étude des espèces du genre Psychoda Latreille (Diptera, Psychodidae). ???: 277-281.

Baillon, H. 1895. Histoire des plantes. Paris, Librairie Hachette & Cie.

Banerji, I. 1947. Life history of Typhonium trilobatum Schott. Proceedings of the National Institute of Science of India 13(5): 207-230.

Barabé, D., A. Bruneau, F. Forest and C. Lacroix 2002. The correlation between development of atypical bisexual flowers and phylogeny in the Aroideae (Araceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 232: 1-19.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix, A. Bruneau, A. Archambault and M. Gibernau 2004. Floral development and phylogenetic position of Schismatoglottis (Araceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 165(1): 173-189.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix, M. Chouteau and M. Gibernau 2004. On the presence of extracellular calcium oxalate crystals on the inflorescences of Araceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146(2): 181-190.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and B. Jeune 19?? Développement de la fleur et de l'inflorescence du Philodendron fragrantissimum (Araceae). ??? ???: 5.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and B. Jeune 2000. Development of the inflorescence and flower of Philodendron fragrantissimum (Araceae): a qualitative and quantitative study. Canadian Journal of Botany 78: 557-576.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and B. Jeune 2002. Developmental morphology of normal and atypical flowers of Philodendron insigne (Araceae): a new case of homeosis. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 1160-1172.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and B. Jeune 2002. Study of homeosis in the flower of Philodendron (Araceae): a qualitative and quantitative approach. Annals of Botany 90: 579-592.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and B. Jeune 2004. The game of numbers in homeotic flowers of Philodendron (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1459-1467.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and M. Gibernau 2003. Development of the flower and inflorescence of Arum italicum (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 622-632.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and M. Gibernau 2004. Aspects of floral morphology in Ambrosina and Arisarum (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 82(2): 282-289.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and M. Gibernau 2011. Floral development of Urospatha, merosity and phylogeny in the Lasioideae (Araceae). Plant Systematics & Evolution 296: 41-50.

Barabé, D., C. Lacroix and M. Gibernau 2012. Developmental floral morphology of Syngonium in the context of the tribe Caladieae (Araceae). Willdenowia 42: 297-305.

Barabé, D., K. Lavallée and M. Gibernau 2008. Pollen viability and germination in some Neotropical Aroids. Botany 86(98-102).

Barabé, D., L. Chrétien and S. Forget 1987. On the pseudomonomerous gynoecia on the Araceae. Phytomorphology 37(2-3): 139-143.

Barabé, D., M. Gibernau and F. Forest 2002. Zonal thermogenetic dynamics of two Philodendron species from two different subgenera (Araceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139(1): 79-86.

Barabé, D., S. Forget and L. Chrétien 1986. Sur les gynécées pseudo-monomères: cas de Symplocarpus (Araceae). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Série III 302(11): 429-434.

Barabé, D., S. Forget and L. Chrétien 1987. Organogenèse de la fleur de Symplocarpus foetidus (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 446-455.

Barabé, D. 1982. Vascularisation de la fleur de Symplocarpus foetidus (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 60(8): 1536-1544.

Barabé, D. 1984. Vascularisation de la fleur de Lysichitum camtschatcense (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 62(10): 1971-1983.

Barabé, D. 1987. La néoténie chez les Araceae (Angiospermae). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Série III 305: 609-612.

Barabé, D. 1994. Développement et phyllotaxie de l'inflorescence du Symplocarpus foetidus (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 715-725.

Barabé, D. 1995. Phyllotaxis: open and closed systems. Journal of Biological Systems 3(4): 917-927.

Barabé, D. and C. Bertrand 1996. Organogénie florale des genres Culcasia et Cercestis (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 898-908.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 1999. Homeosis, morphogenetic gradient and the determination of floral identity in the inflorescences of Philodendron solimoesense (Araceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 219: 243-261.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2000. Homeosis in Araceae flowers: the case of Philodendron melinonii. Annals of Botany 86: 479-491.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2001. Aspects of floral development in Philodendron grandifolium and Philodendron megalophyllum (Araceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 162(1): 47-57.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2001. The developmental floral morphology of Montrichardia arborescens (Araceae) revisited. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135: 413-420.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2002. Aspects of floral development in Caladium bicolor (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 899-905.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2008. Developmental morphology of the flower of Anaphyllopsis americana and its relevance to our understanding of basal Araceae. Botany 86: 1467-1473.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2008. Developmental morphology of the flower of Anthurium jenmanii: a new element in our understanding of basal Araceae. Botany 86: 45-52.

Barabé, D. and C. Lacroix 2008. Hierarchical developmental morphology: the case of the inflorescence of Philodendron ornatum (Araceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169(8): 1013-1022.

Barabé, D. and L. Chrétien 1985. Anatomie florale de Monstera deliciosa (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 1423-1428.

Barabé, D. and L. Chrétien 1986. Anatomie florale de Spathicarpa sagittifolia (Araceae). Beitr. Biologie Pflanzen 60(3): 403-412.

Barabé, D. and L. Chrétien 1986. Vascularisation de la fleur de Spathiphyllum wallisii. Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 1397-1401.

Barabé, D. and M. Gibernau 2000. Etude comparative de la production de chaleur chez quelques Araceae. Adansonia, sér. 3 22: 253-263.

Barabé, D. and M. Gibernau 2010. Thermogenic patterns in Philodendron ornatum and P. grandifolium: a comparative analysis. Aroideana 33: 192-200.

Barabé, D. and M. Labrecque 1983. Vascularisation de la fleur de Calla palustris (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 1718-1726.

Barabé, D. and M. Labrecque 1985. Vascularisation de la fleur d'Orontium aquaticum L. (Aracées). Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 132(2): 133-145.

Barabé, D. and R. V. Jean 1996. The constraints of global form on phyllotactic organization: the case of Symplocarpus (Araceae). Journal of theoretical Biology 178: 393-397.

Barabé, D. and S. Forget 1987. Analyse phylogénique des Calloideae (Araceae). Naturalsite canadien (Revue d'Ecologie et Systématique) 114: 487-494.

Barabé, D. and S. Forget 1988. Anatomie des fleurs fertiles et stériles de Zamioculcas (Araceae). Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoires naturelles de Paris, 4e série, section B, Adansonia 10(4): 411-419.

Barabé, D. and S. Forget 1988. Anatomie florale de l'Aglaonema pictum (Araceae). Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen 63: 453-462.

Barabé, D. and S. Forget 1992. Anatomir florale des Culcasia (Araceae). Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoires naturelles de Paris, 4e série, section B, Adansonia 14(2): 263-278.

Barahona Carvajal, M. E. 1977. Estudio morfologico comparativo de las inflorescencias de dos especies de Araceae: Anthurium denudatum Engler y Philodendron radiatum Schott. Revista de Biologia Tropical 25(2): 301-333.

Barnes, E. 1934. Some observations on the genus Arisaema on the Nilgiri hills, South India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 37: 629-639.

Barre, A., E. J. M. Van Damme, W. J. Peumans and P. Rougé 1996. Structure-function relationship of monocot mannose-binding lectins. Plant Physiology 112: 1531-1540.

Barriault, I., D. Barabé, L. Cloutier and M. Gibernau 2010. Pollination ecology and reproductive success in Jack-in-the Pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) in Québec (Canada). Plant Biology 12(1): 161-171.

Barriault, I., M. Gibernau and D. Barabé 2009. Flowering period, thermogenesis, and pattern of visiting insects in Arisaema triphyllum (Araceae) in Quebec. Botany 87: 324-329.

Barroso, A., F. Amor, X. Cerda and R. R. Boulay 2013. Dispersal of non-myrmecochorous plants by a "keystone disperser" ant in a Mediterranean habitat reveals asymmetric interdependence. Insectes Sociaux 60: 75-76.

Barth, C., G. H. Krause and K. Winter 2001. Responses of photosystem I compared with photosystem II to high-light stress in tropical shade and sun leaves. Plant Cell and Environment 24: 163-176.

Barthlott, W., J. Szarzynski, P. Vlek, W. Lobin and N. Korotkova 2008. A torch in the rain forest: thermogenesis of the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum). Plant Biology 11(4): 499-505.

Bastien, D. and M. Belin-Depoux (1998). L'association Philodendron - fourmis - aleurodes en Guyane française. 6e journées du groupe de travail relations insectes-plantes, Lusignan, France.

Bastmeijer, J. D., Y. S. Kumamoto and N. Jacobsen 2002. Cryptocoryne yujii, C. uénoi, C. cordata complex, C. purpurea nothovar borneoensis. Aqua Planta 27(4): 145-146, 147-149, 150-151, 152-154.

Battandier, M. 1881. Notes sur un Biarum d'Algérie, précédée de quelques mots sur l'espèce. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 28(11 Novembre): 264-272.

Bawa, K. S. and J. H. Beach 1981. Evolution of sexual systems in flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 68: 254-274.

Bay, D. C. 1995. Thermogenesis in the Aroids. Aroideana 18: 32-39.

Beath, D. N. 1996. Pollination of Amorphophallus johnsonii (Araceae) by carrion beetles (Phaeochrous amplus) in a Ghanaian rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 409-418.

Beath, D. N. 1998. Pollination ecology of the Araceae. Web site 7.

Beath, D. N. 1999. Dynastine scarab beetle pollination in Dieffenbachia longispatha (Araceae) on Barro Colorado Island (Panama) compared with La Selva biological station (Costa Rica). Aroideana 22: 63-71.

Bedalov, M., P. Bianco, P. Medagli and S. D'Emerico 1993. Considerazioni tassonomiche su Arum alpinum Schott et Kotschy, Arum cylindraceum Gasparr, e Arum lucanum Cavara et Grande. Webbia 48: 209-212.

Bedalov, M. 1981. Cytotaxonomy of the genus Arum (Araceae) in the Balkans and the Aegean area. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 102(1-2): 183-200.

Bedalov, M. 1984. A new pentaploid of the genus Arum (Araceae). Botanica Helvetica 94(2): 385-390.

Bedalov, M. and M. Hesse 1989. On some pollen types within Arum (Araceae). Plant Systematics & Evolution 166: 41-44.

Bedalov, M. and P. Küpfer 2005. Studies on the genus Arum (Araceae). Bulletin de la Société Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles 128: 43-70.

Behnke, H.-D. 1995. P-type sieve-elements platids and the systematics of the Arales (sensu Cronquist 1988) - with S-type plastids in Pistia. Plant Systematics and Evolution 195: 87-119.

Behnke, H.-D. 2003. Sieve-element plastids and evolution of monocotyledons, with emphasis on Melanthiaceae sensu lato and Aristolochiaceae-Asaroideae, a putative dicotyledon sister group. The Botanical Review 68(4): 524-544.

Behnke, H.-D. and W. Barthlott 1983. New evidence from the ultrastructural and micromorphological fields in angiosperm classification. Nordic Journal of Botany 3: 43-66.

Belin-Depoux, M. 1978. Sur la présence de territoires foliaires glandularisés chez Alocasia Schott (Araceae). Revue Générale de Botanique 85: 211-200.

Bendall, D. S. and R. Hill 1955. Cytochrome components in the spadix of Arum maculatum. New Phytologist 55(2): 206-212.

Bentes Gama, M. M., A. H. Vieira and R. B. Rocha 2013. Ecological features of titica vine (Heteropsis flexuosa (Kunth) GS Bunting) in Rondônia State, Northwest Brazilian Amazon. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 85(3): 1117-1125.

Bermadinger-Stabentheiner, E. and A. Stabentheiner 1995. Dynamics of thermogenesis and structure of epidermal tissues in inflorescences of Arum maculatum. The New Phytologist 131: 41-50.

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Bertsova, Y. V., V. N. Popov and A. V. Bogachev 2004. NADH oxidation by mitochondria from the thermogenic plant Arum orientale. Biochemistry (Moscow) 69(5): 580-584.

Beuret, E. 1971. Répartition géographique de quelques Arum des groupes maculatum L. et italicum Mill. Bulletin de la Société Neuchateloise de Sciences Naturelles 94: 29-36.

Beuret, E. 1977. Contribution à l'étude de la distribution géographique et de la physiologie de taxons affines di- et polyploides. Bibliotheca Botanica 133: 1-80.

Bharathan, G. and N. R. Sinha 2001. The regulation of compound leaf development. Plant Physiology 127: 1533-1538.

Bianco, P., S. D'Emerico, P. Medagli and M. Bedalov 1994. Indagini sistematiche su Arum apulum (Carano) Bedalov (Araceae), entità endemica delle Murge Pugliesi. Webbia 49(1): 43-49.

Bickel, A. M. and D. C. Freeman 1993. Effects of pollen vector and plant geometry on floral sex ratio in monoecious plants. The American Midland Naturalist 130(2): 239-247.

Bierzychudek, P. 1981. Pollinator limitation of plant reproductive effort. The American Naturalist 117: 838-840.

Bierzychudek, P. 1982. Life histories and demography of shade-tolerant temperate forest herbs:a review. New Phytologist 90: 757-776.

Bierzychudek, P. 1982. The demography of jack-in-the-pulpit, a forest perennial that changes sex. Ecological Monographs 52(4): 335-351.

Bierzychudek, P. 1984. Assessing "optimal" life histories in a fluctuating environment: the evolution of sex-changing by jack-in-the-pulpit. The American Naturalist 123(6): 829-840.

Bierzychudek, P. 1984. Determinants of gender in Jack-in-the pulpit: the influence of plant size and reproductive history. Oecologia 65: 14-18.

Bilgin, A., M. Kilinç, H. G. Kutbay, E. Yalçin and R. Hüseyinova 2009. Effects of sexual reproduction on growth and vegetative propagation in Arum maculatum L. (Araceae): in-situ removal experiments. Polish Journal of Ecology 57(2): 377-384.

Billiet, F. 2004. Phenology of tropical and subtropical plants in greenhouses in the National Botanic Garden of Belgium. Scripta Botanica Belgica 29: 39-54.

Blackith, R. and R. Blackith 1993. Diptera (Insecta) attracted to the Dragon's mouth lily (Dracunculus vulgaris Schott) in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish biogeographical Society 16: 2-7.

Blaringhem, L. 1933. La fièvre des Arum. Comptes Rendus (de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris) 197(séance du 18 décembre): 1551-1554.

Bloch, R. 1946. Differentiation and pattern in Monstera deliciosa. The idioblastic development of the trichoslereids in the air root. American Journal of Botany 33(June): 544-551.

Blüthgen, N., M. Verhaagh, W. Goitia, K. Jaffé, W. Morawetz and W. Barthlott 2000. How plants shape the ant community in the Amazonian rainforest canopy: the key role of extrafloral nectaries and homopteran honeydew. Oecologia 125: 229-240.

Bogner, J., G. L. Hoffman and K. R. Aulenback 2005. A fossilized aroid infructescence, Albertarum pueri gen.nov. et spec.nov., of Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian) age from the Horseshoe canyon formation of southern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 83: 591-598.

Bogner, J. 1972. Revision der Arophyteae (Araceae). Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 92(1): 1-63.

Bogner, J. 1981. Pseudohydrosme gabunensis Engl. Aroideana 4: 31-37.

Bogner, J. 1983. A new Hottarum (Araceae) species from Borneo. Plant Systematics and Evolution 142: 49-55.

Bogner, J. 1984. A new Stylochaeton species (Araceae) from East Africa. Plant Systematics and Evolution 144: 77-81.

Bogner, J. 1984. On Hapaline appendiculata and Phymatarum borneense, two rare Araceae from Borneo. Plant Systematics and Evolution 144: 59-66.

Bogner, J. 1987. Morphological variation in aroids. Aroideana 10(2): 4-15.

Bogner, J. 1995. A remarkable new Amorphophallus (Araceae) from India. Kew Bulletin 50(2): 397-400.

Bogner, J. 2004. Cryptocoryne sivadasanii (Araceae), a new species from India. Willdenowia 34: 195-201.

Bogner, J. 2008. Gorgonidium beckianum (Araceae), a new species from Bolivia. Willdenowia 38: 195-200.

Bogner, J. 2009. The free-floating Aroids (Araceae) - living and fossil. Zitteliana A 48/49: 113-128.

Bogner, J. and A. Hay 2000. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia II - Aridarum, Bucephalandra, Phymatarum and Piptospatha. Telopea 9(1): 179-221.

Bogner, J. and D. H. Nicolson 1988. Revision of the South American genus Gorgonidium Schott (Araceae: Spathicarpeae). Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 109(4): 529-554.

Bogner, J. and E. G. Gonçalves 1999. The genus Gearum N. E. Brown (Araceae: Tribe Spathicarpeae). Aroideana 22: 20-29.

Bogner, J. and E. G. Gonçalves 2005. Two new species of Xanthosoma (Araceae) from South America and notes on the tribe Caladieae. Willdenowia 35: 333-344.

Bogner, J. and P. Boyce 2008. Eminium jaegeri (Araceae), a new species from northwestern Iran. Willdenowia 38: 149-153.

Bogner, J. and P. C. Boyce 1994. Scindapsus lucens (Araceae: Monsteroideae), a new species related to Scindapsus pictus. Kew Bulletin 49(4): 789-792.

Bogner, J. and P. C. Boyce 2009. Studies on the Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo VI: A new Schismatoglottis species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60(2): 1-9.

Bogner, J. and V. D. Nguyen 2008. A new Homalomena species (Araceae) from Vietnam. Willdenowia 38: 527-531.

Boles, R. L., J. Lovett-Doust and L. Lovett-Doust 1999. Population genetic structure in green dragon (Arisaema dracontium, Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 77: 1401-1410.

Bonora, A., S. Pancaldi, R. Gualandri and M. P. Fasulo 2000. Carotenoid and ultrastructure variations in plastids of Arum italicum Miller fruit during maturation and ripening. Journal of Experimental Botany 51(346): 873-884.

Boorman, J. 1986. British Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): notes on distribution and biology. Entomologist's Gazette 37: 253-266.

Boos, J. O. 1993. Experiencing Urospathas. Aroideana 16: 33-36.

Borg-Karlson, A.-K., F. O. Englund and C. R. Unelius 1994. Dimethyl oligosulphides, major volatiles released from Sauromatum guttatum and Phallus impudicus. Phytochemistry 35(2): 321-323.

Borkent, A. and J. Bissett 1985. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are vectors for their fungal symbionts. Symbiosis 1: 185-194.

Boubes, C. and D. Barabé 1996. Développement de l'inflorescence et des fleurs du Philodendron acutatum Schott (Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 909-918.

Boubes, C. and D. Barabé 1997. Flower and inflorescence development in Montrichardia arborescens (L.) Schott (Araceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 158(4): 408-417.

Boyce, P. 1986. Observations on aroids. Quaterly Bulletin of the Alpine Garden Society 54(1): 35-42.

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